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Table 1 Characteristics of 1077 prostate cancer cases and 1077 controls

From: Pre-diagnostic metabolite concentrations and prostate cancer risk in 1077 cases and 1077 matched controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Characteristic Cases, n = 1077 Controls, n = 1077
Age at blood collection, years (SD) 60.0 (7.1) 60.0 (7.1)
Height, cm (SD)a 171.7 (6.9) 172.1 (7.1)
BMI, kg/m2 (SD)a 26.8 (3.5) 26.9 (3.5)
Smoking, n (%)a
 Never 349 (33.0) 307 (29.0)
 Former 467 (44.1) 501 (47.3)
 Current 242 (22.9) 252 (23.8)
Alcohol consumption, n (%)a
  < 10 g/day 479 (44.8) 480 (44.6)
 10–19 g/day 199 (18.6) 201 (18.7)
 20–40 g/day 218 (20.4) 221 (20.5)
  ≥ 40 g/day 174 (16.3) 174 (16.2)
Physical activity, n (%)a
 Inactive 292 (28.0) 273 (26.0)
 Moderately inactive 328 (31.4) 326 (31.1)
 Moderately active 242 (23.2) 246 (23.5)
 Active 182 (17.4) 204 (19.4)
Marital status, n (%)a
 Married or cohabiting 718 (89.4) 730 (90.2)
 Not married or cohabiting 85 (10.6) 79 (9.8)
Educational attainment, n (%)a
 Primary or equivalent 413 (41.1) 425 (42.2)
 Secondary 369 (36.7) 396 (39.4)
 Degree 223 (22.2) 185 (18.4)
Cases only
 Age at diagnosis, years (SD) 66.9 (7.0)
 Time to diagnosis, n (%)b
   < 2 years 137 (12.7)
  2 to <4 years 177 (16.4)
  4 to <6 years 191 (17.7)
  6 to <8 years 120 (11.1)
  8 to <10 years 136 (12.6)
   ≥ 10 years 316 (29.3)
 Year of diagnosis, median (range) 2001 (1994-2008)
 Grade, n (%)a,c
  Low-intermediate grade 778 (86.3)
  High grade 124 (13.7)
 Stage, n (%)a,d
  Localised 456 (68.7)
  Advanced 208 (31.3)
  Non-aggressive 549 (82.7)
  Aggressive 115 (17.3)
 Death from prostate cancer, n (%)a,e 127 (12.3)
  1. aUnknown values for some participants; the calculations of percentages exclude missing values
  2. bTime between blood collection and diagnosis
  3. cGleason score <8 or coded as well, moderately or poorly differentiated for low-intermediate grade and Gleason score ≥8 or coded as undifferentiated for high grade
  4. dThe TNM system was used to categorise stages of prostate cancer; localised: ≤T2 and N0/x and M0, or coded as localised; advanced: T3–4 and/or N1–3 and/or M1, or coded as advanced; and aggressive: T4 and/or N1–3 and/or M1. All categories are not mutually exclusive, so numbers do not add up; percentages were calculated separately for localised and advanced, and for non-aggressive and aggressive
  5. eDeath from prostate cancer (prostate cancer listed as the underlying cause of death on the death certificate) during follow-up; 144 died of prostate cancer, but 17 were excluded from further analysis as their matched control had died before them (n = 13) or vital status was not known for their control (n = 4)