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Table 10 Bivariate associations between socio-demographics correlates and DSM-IV SAD (upper-middle income countries)

From: The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

Correlates 30-day SADa Lifetime risk of SADb 12-month SAD among lifetime casesc 30-day SAD among 12-month casesc
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age-cohort
 18–29 2.0* (1.2–3.1) 3.9* (2.7–5.5)     
 30–44 2.1* (1.3–3.3) 2.9* (2.1–4.0)     
 45–59 1.9* (1.2–3.1) 2.1* (1.5–3.1)     
 60+ 1.0   1.0      
Age-cohort differenced χ2 3 = 9.8*, P = 0.021 χ2 3 = 70.3*, P < 0.001   
Age of onset
 Early      1.0 (0.6–2.0) 0.5* (0.3–1.0)
 Early-average      0.8 (0.5–1.4) 0.6 (0.3–1.1)
 Late-average      0.9 (0.5–1.5) 1.0 (0.6–1.7)
 Late      1.0   1.0  
Age of onset differenced      χ2 3 = 1.0, P = 0.810 χ2 3 = 6.4, P = 0.092
Time since onset (continuous)      0.99 (0.98–1.01) 1.02* (1.00–1.03)
      χ2 1 = 1.0, P = 0.309 χ2 1 = 5.8*, P = 0.016
Gender
 Female 2.0* (1.6–2.6) 1.5* (1.3–1.8) 1.6* (1.1–2.4) 1.6* (1.0–2.3)
 Male 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Gender differenced χ2 1 = 29.5*, P < 0.001 χ2 1 = 19.6*, P < 0.001 χ2 1 = 4.7*, P = 0.030 χ2 1 = 4.5*, P = 0.034
Employment status
 Student 1.8 (1.0–3.3) 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 0.6 (0.3–1.5)
 Homemaker 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 1.1 (0.8–1.3) 1.4 (0.8–2.3) 1.8* (1.1–3.1)
 Retired 0.4* (0.2–0.9) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 1.0 (0.4–2.7) 0.4 (0.1–1.3)
 Other 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 1.2 (0.7–2.1)
 Employed 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Employment status differenced χ2 4 = 15.8*, P = 0.003 χ2 4 = 7.8, P = 0.101 χ2 4 = 3.9, P = 0.414 χ2 4 = 18.7*, P = 0.001
Marital status
 Never married 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 1.3* (1.0–1.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.8 (0.5–1.2)
 Divorced/separated/widowed 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1.3* (1.0–1.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.8 (0.4–1.4)
 Currently married 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Marital status differenced χ2 2 = 0.4, P = 0.815 χ2 2 = 8.4*, P = 0.015 χ2 2 = 0.0, P = 0.996 χ2 2 = 1.5, P = 0.484
Education level
 No education 1.4 (0.7–2.9) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 2.1 (0.6–7.4)
 Some primary 1.7* (1.1–2.8) 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 3.8* (2.0–7.3) 2.2 (0.9–5.3)
 Primary finished 1.6 (1.0–2.6) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 2.4* (1.1–5.1) 1.3 (0.5–3.3)
 Some secondary 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.3 (0.7–2.6) 1.2 (0.6–2.4)
 Secondary finished 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 1.4 (0.7–2.7)
 Some college 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.5 (0.6–3.8) 0.7 (0.3–1.6)
 College finished 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Education level differenced χ2 3 = 12.9*, P = 0.044 χ2 3 = 10.6, P = 0.102 χ2 3 = 37.1*, P < 0.001 χ2 3 = 9.3, P = 0.157
Household income
 Low 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 1.6 (0.8–3.1)
 Low-average 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 1.6 (0.9–2.8)
 High-average 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.8 (0.7–1.1) 1.3 (0.7–2.3) 2.0* (1.2–3.5)
 High 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Household income differenced χ2 3 = 1.7, P = 0.649 χ2 3 = 3.1, P = 0.384 χ2 3 = 2.0, P = 0.580 χ2 3 = 6.7, P = 0.082
N e 28,927 1,206,689 834 601
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided test
  2. aThese estimates are based on logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and upper-middle income countries
  3. bThese estimates are based on survival models adjusted for age-cohorts, gender, person-years, and upper-middle income countries
  4. cThese estimates are based on logistic regression models adjusted for time since SAD onset, age of SAD onset, gender, and upper-middle income countries
  5. dChi-square test exploring significant differences between blocks of socio-demographic variables
  6. eDenominator N: 28,927 = total sample; 1,206,689 = number of person-years in the survival model; 834 = number of lifetime cases of SAD; 601 = number of 12-month cases of SAD
  7. A dash was inserted for low cell counts (<5 cases)