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Table 11 Bivariate associations between socio-demographics correlates and DSM-IV SAD (high income countries)

From: The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

Correlates 30-day SADa Lifetime SADb 12-month SAD among lifetime casesc 30-day SAD among 12-month casesc
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age-cohort
 18–29 3.3* (2.7–4.2) 3.3* (3.0–3.8)     
 30–44 2.8* (2.3–3.5) 2.8* (2.5–3.2)     
 45–59 2.5* (2.0–3.2) 2.3* (2.1–2.7)     
 60+ 1.0   1.0      
Age-cohort differenced χ2 3 = 119.5*, P < 0.001 χ2 3 = 414.6*, P < 0.001   
Age of onset
 Early      1.5* (1.1–1.9) 1.0 (0.8–1.4)
 Early-average      1.5* (1.2–1.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.3)
 Late-average      1.2 (0.9–1.4) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
 Late      1.0   1.0  
Age of onset differenced      χ2 3 = 13.4*, P = 0.004 χ2 3 = 1.8, P = 0.615
Time since onset (Continuous)      0.98* (0.97–0.98) 1.01 (1.00–1.01)
      χ2 1 = 57.0*, P < 0.001 χ2 1 = 2.9, P = 0.087
Gender
 Female 1.6* (1.4–1.8) 1.3* (1.2–1.4) 1.3* (1.1–1.5) 1.2 (1.0–1.4)
 Male 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Gender differenced χ2 1 = 38.8*, P < 0.001 χ2 1 = 44.7*, P < 0.001 χ2 1 = 8.5*, P = 0.004 χ2 1 = 2.8, P = 0.097
Employment status
 Student 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 1.5 (1.0–2.3)
 Homemaker 1.4* (1.2–1.8) 1.2* (1.1–1.4) 1.3* (1.0–1.7) 1.3 (0.9–1.8)
 Retired 0.7* (0.5–1.0) 0.8* (0.7–1.0) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.1 (0.7–1.6)
 Other 2.2* (1.8–2.7) 1.6* (1.5–1.9) 2.3* (1.7–3.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
 Employed 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Employment status differenced χ2 4 = 81.7*, P < 0.001 χ2 4 = 84.1*, P < 0.001 χ2 4 = 34.4*, P < 0.001 χ2 4 = 5.3, P = 0.258
Marital status
 Never married 1.3* (1.1–1.6) 1.4* (1.3–1.6) 1.5* (1.2–1.8) 1.0 (0.8–1.3)
 Divorced/separated/widowed 1.6* (1.3–2.0) 1.3* (1.2–1.5) 1.5* (1.2–1.8) 1.1 (0.9–1.4)
 Currently married 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Marital status differenced χ2 2 = 30.0*, P < 0.001 χ2 2 = 63.3*, P < 0.001 χ2 2 = 26.0*, P < 0.001 χ2 2 = 0.7, P = 0.709
Education level
 No education
 Some primary 1.9* (1.1–3.1) 1.2 (1.0–1.6) 2.9* (1.7–5.0) 1.5 (0.7–3.1)
 Primary finished 1.3 (0.8–1.9) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.7* (1.0–2.9) 0.9 (0.5–1.5)
 Some secondary 1.4* (1.1–1.8) 1.2* (1.1–1.4) 1.7* (1.3–2.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
 Secondary finished 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 1.3* (1.1–1.6) 0.8 (0.6–1.0)
 Some college 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.2* (1.0–1.3) 1.3* (1.0–1.7) 0.8 (0.6–1.1)
 College finished 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Education level differenced χ2 3 = 17.2*, P = 0.009 χ2 3 = 15.6*, P = 0.016 χ2 3 = 29.4*, P < 0.001 χ2 3 = 7.6, P = 0.268
Household income
 Low 1.6* (1.3–2.0) 1.2* (1.1–1.4) 1.8* (1.4–2.2) 1.3 (1.0–1.8)
 Low-average 1.3* (1.0–1.6) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 1.4* (1.1–1.7) 1.3 (1.0–1.8)
 High-average 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.0 (0.8–1.4)
 High 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Household income differenced χ2 3 = 25.1*, P < 0.001 χ2 3 = 15.9*, P = 0.001 χ2 3 = 32.7*, P < 0.001 χ2 3 = 5.7, P = 0.126
N e 76,980 3,448,640 4360 2510
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided test
  2. aThese estimates are based on logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and high income countries
  3. bThese estimates are based on survival models adjusted for age-cohorts, gender, person-years, and high income countries
  4. cThese estimates are based on logistic regression models adjusted for time since SAD onset, age of SAD onset, gender, and high income countries
  5. dChi-square test exploring significant differences between blocks of socio-demographic variables
  6. eDenominator N: 76,980 = total sample; 3,448,640 = number of person-years in the survival model; 4360 = number of lifetime cases of SAD; 2510 = number of 12-month cases of SAD
  7. A dash was inserted for low cell counts (<5 cases)