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Table 5 Bivariate associations between socio-demographics correlates and DSM-IV social anxiety disorder (all countries combined)

From: The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

Correlates 30-day Social Anxiety Disordera Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorderb 12-month Social Anxiety Disorder among lifetime casesc 30-day Social Anxiety Disorder among 12-month casesc
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age-cohort
 18-29 3.2* (2.6-3.9) 3.6* (3.2-4.0)     
 30-44 2.8* (2.3-3.4) 2.9* (2.6-3.2)     
 45-59 2.5* (2.0-3.1) 2.4* (2.1-2.6)     
 60+ 1.0   1.0      
Age-cohort differenced χ2 3 = 145.4*, P < .001 χ2 3 = 547.3*, P < .001   
Age of onset
 Early      1.5* (1.2-1.8) 1.0 (0.7-1.2)
 Early-average      1.4* (1.1-1.7) 0.9 (0.7-1.2)
 Late-average      1.1 (0.9-1.3) 0.9 (0.8-1.2)
 Late      1.0   1.0  
Age of onset differenced      χ2 3 = 15.4*, P = 0.002 χ2 3 = 0.5, P = 0.926
Time since onset (Continuous)      0.98* (0.98-0.99) 1.01* (1.00-1.01)
      χ2 1 = 63.1*, P < .001 χ2 1 = 5.0*, P = 0.025
Gender
 Female 1.7* (1.5-1.9) 1.3* (1.2-1.4) 1.3* (1.2-1.5) 1.2* (1.0-1.4)
 Male 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Gender differenced χ2 1 = 65.3*, P < .001 χ2 1 = 61.5*, P < .001 χ2 1 = 15.7*, P < .001 χ2 1 = 5.9*, P = 0.015
Employment status
 Student 1.4* (1.1-1.9) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 1.1 (0.8-1.6) 2.1* (1.4-3.0)
 Homemaker 1.5* (1.3-1.7) 1.2* (1.1-1.3) 1.4* (1.1-1.7) 1.4* (1.1-1.8)
 Retired 0.6* (0.5-0.8) 0.9 (0.7-1.0) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 0.9 (0.6-1.3)
 Other 1.8* (1.5-2.1) 1.5* (1.3-1.6) 2.0* (1.6-2.6) 1.0 (0.8-1.3)
 Employed 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Employment status differenced χ2 4 = 81.8*, P < .001 χ2 4 = 63.6*, P < .001 χ2 4 = 36.9*, P < .001 χ2 4 = 20.4*, P < .001
Marital status
 Never married 1.2* (1.1-1.4) 1.4* (1.3-1.5) 1.3* (1.1-1.6) 1.0 (0.8-1.2)
 Divorced/separated/widowed 1.5* (1.3-1.7) 1.3* (1.2-1.5) 1.4* (1.1-1.6) 1.0 (0.8-1.3)
 Currently married 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Marital status differenced χ2 2 = 26.6*, P < .001 χ2 2 = 75.7*, P < .001 χ2 2 = 18.4*, P < .001 χ2 2 = 0.2, P = 0.887
Education level
 No education 1.3 (0.8-2.2) 0.8 (0.6-1.2) 5.6* (2.2-14.4) 1.2 (0.6-2.6)
 Some primary 1.8* (1.3-2.4) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 3.0* (2.1-4.3) 1.7* (1.1-2.8)
 Finished primary 1.5* (1.2-2.0) 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 2.0* (1.4-2.8) 1.1 (0.7-1.8)
 Some secondary 1.4* (1.1-1.7) 1.2* (1.1-1.3) 1.6* (1.3-2.0) 1.0 (0.8-1.4)
 Finished secondary 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.1 (1.0-1.2) 1.3* (1.1-1.6) 0.8 (0.6-1.0)
 Some college 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.1 (1.0-1.2) 1.3* (1.0-1.6) 0.8 (0.6-1.0)
 Finished college 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Education level differenced χ2 6 = 33.6*, P < .001 χ2 6 = 16.2*, P = 0.013 χ2 6 = 54.1*, P < .001 χ2 6 = 14.8*, P = 0.022
Household income
 Low 1.4* (1.2-1.7) 1.1* (1.0-1.2) 1.6* (1.3-1.9) 1.4* (1.0-1.8)
 Low-average 1.3* (1.0-1.5) 1.0 (0.9-1.1) 1.4* (1.1-1.7) 1.3 (1.0-1.7)
 High-average 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 1.0 (0.9-1.1) 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
 High 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Household income differenced χ2 3 = 19.4*, P < .001 χ2 3 = 10.5*, P = 0.015 χ2 3 = 23.1*, P < .001 χ2 3 = 6.9, P = 0.077
Ne 142,405 6,081,561 5758 3460
  1. *Significant at the .05 level, 2 sided test
  2. aThese estimates are based on logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender and country
  3. bThese estimates are based on survival models adjusted for age-cohorts, gender, person-years and country
  4. cThese estimates are based on logistic regression models adjusted for time since social anxiety disorder onset, age of social anxiety disorder onset, gender and country
  5. dChi square test of significant differences between blocks of sociodemographic variables
  6. eDenominator N: 142,405 = total sample; 6,081,561 = number of person-years in the survival models; 5,758 = number of lifetime cases of social anxiety disorder; 3,460 = number of 12-month social anxiety disorder cases