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Table 9 Bivariate associations between socio-demographics correlates and DSM-IV SAD (low/lower-middle income countries)

From: The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

Correlates 30-day SADa Lifetime SADb 12-month SAD among lifetime casesc 30-day SAD among 12-month casesc
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age-cohort
 18–29 6.7* (2.9–15.5) 7.1* (4.3–11.6)     
 30–44 4.8* (2.1–11.0) 4.7* (2.8–7.7)     
 45–59 3.6* (1.4–8.9) 3.2* (1.9–5.5)     
 60+ 1.0   1.0      
Age-cohort differenced χ2 3 = 26.6*, P < 0.001 χ2 3 = 74.7*, P < 0.001   
Age of onset
 Early      2.7* (1.3–5.5) 1.3 (0.6–2.8)
 Early-average      1.4 (0.8–2.4) 1.4 (0.7–3.2)
 Late-average      1.1 (0.6–1.9) 1.4 (0.7–2.8)
 Late      1.0   1.0  
Age of onset differenced      χ2 3 = 9.3*, P = 0.026 χ2 3 = 1.3, P = 0.721
Time since onset (continuous)      0.98* (0.96–0.99) 0.99 (0.97–1.02)
      χ2 1 = 7.4*, P = 0.007 χ2 1 = 0.3, P = 0.573
Gender
 Female 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 1.1 (0.7–1.9)
 Male 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Gender differenced χ2 1 = 2.8, P = 0.092 χ2 1 = 1.3, P = 0.255 χ2 1 = 3.7, P = 0.055 χ2 1 = 0.2, P = 0.679
Employment status         
 Student 1.4 (0.6–3.1) 1.1 (0.6–1.8) 1.7 (0.6–4.8) 3.7* (1.3–10.8)
 Homemaker 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 1.7 (0.9–3.2) 1.3 (0.6–3.0)
 Retired 0.7 (0.3–1.9) 1.9 (1.0–3.8) 0.6 (0.2–1.5) 0.7 (0.3–2.2)
 Other 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 2.4* (1.2–4.9) 0.8 (0.4–1.7)
 Employed 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Employment status differenced χ2 4 = 2.7, P = 0.606 χ2 4 = 4.2, P = 0.387 χ2 4 = 9.9*, P = 0.043 χ2 4 = 7.4, P = 0.115
Marital status
 Never married 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 1.4* (1.1–1.8) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.0 (0.5–1.8)
 Divorced/separated/widowed 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 1.2 (0.5–2.7)
 Currently married 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Marital status differenced χ2 2 = 0.8, P = 0.664 χ2 2 = 7.4*, P = 0.025 χ2 2 = 1.0, P = 0.613 χ2 2 = 0.2, P = 0.927
Education level
 No education 1.2 (0.4–3.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.8) 1.1 (0.3–3.6)
 Some primary 1.4 (0.6–3.2) 0.9 (0.5–1.4) 1.5 (0.6–4.2) 2.8 (0.9–8.9)
 Primary finished 1.9 (0.8–4.1) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 1.6 (0.7–3.7) 2.0 (0.7–6.2)
 Some secondary 1.2 (0.5–2.5) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 1.5 (0.7–3.3) 1.0 (0.5–2.4)
 Secondary finished 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 0.8 (0.4–1.6)
 Some college 0.6 (0.3–1.0) 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 1.1 (0.5–2.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.3)
 College finished 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Education level differenced χ2 3 = 12.2, P = 0.058 χ2 3 = 2.6, P = 0.856 χ2 3 = 3.5, P = 0.739 χ2 3 = 8.9, P = 0.181
Household income
 Low 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 1.2 (0.6–2.6)
 Low-average 1.2 (0.6–2.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 2.0* (1.0–4.1) 0.9 (0.4–2.1)
 High-average 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.8 (0.9–3.6) 0.7 (0.4–1.4)
 High 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Household income differenced χ2 3 = 1.4, P = 0.709 χ2 3 = 1.0, P = 0.800 χ2 3 = 5.9, P = 0.117 χ2 3 = 2.4, P = 0.498
N e 36,498 1,426,232 564 349
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level, two-sided test
  2. aThese estimates are based on logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and low/lower-middle income countries
  3. bThese estimates are based on survival models adjusted for age-cohorts, gender, person-years, and low/lower-middle income countries
  4. cThese estimates are based on logistic regression models adjusted for time since SAD onset, age of SAD onset, gender, and low/lower-middle income countries
  5. dChi-square test exploring significant differences between blocks of socio-demographic variables
  6. eDenominator N: 36,498 = total sample; 1,426,232 = number of person-years in the survival model; 564 = number of lifetime cases of SAD; 349 = number of 12-month cases of SAD
  7. A dash was inserted for low cell counts (<5 cases)