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Table 3 Effect of pragmatic lifestyle modification as compared to control lifestyle modification on the incidence of the primary cardio-metabolic composite endpoint and its individual components in 1814 healthy participants aged above 18 and 1725 below 18 years of age

From: A pragmatic lifestyle modification programme reduces the incidence of predictors of cardio-metabolic disease and dysglycaemia in a young healthy urban South Asian population: a randomised controlled trial

Component of primary composite endpoint Pragmatic lifestyle modification Control lifestyle modification Incident rate ratio (95% confidence Intervals) P value
Participants aged ≥ 18 years n = 876 n = 938   
 Composite 339 387 0.93 (0.86–1.03) 0.11
 New onset T2DM 54 63 0.9 (0.73–1.11) 0.35
 New onset IGT 97 105 1.01 (0.87–1.17) 0.89
 New onset IFG 88 115 0.78 (0.67–0.91) 0.02
 New onset dysglycaemiaa 239 283 0.9 (0.82–1.00) 0.051
 Hypertension 82 95 0.91 (0.77–1.089) 0.31
 Statin therapy 38 45 0.89 (0.69–1.15) 0.39
 Renal disease events 0 4   N/A
 Cardiovascular events 1 0   N/A
 Deaths 1 0   N/A
Participants aged < 18 years n = 850 n = 875   
 Composite 140 174 0.83 (0.73–0.94) 0.004
 New onset T2DM 4 9 0.48 (0.24–0.94) 0.032
 New onset IGT 46 63 0.74 (0.60–0.90) 0.009
 New onset IFG 58 51 1.13 (0.93–1.4) 0.13
 New onset dysglycaemiaa 113 133 0.91 (0.79–1.03) 0.24
 Hypertension 33 57 0.60 (0.47–0.76) 0.001
 Statin therapy 3 1 2.89 (0.77–10.7 0.11
 Renal disease events 2 4 0.5 (0.19–1.33) 0.16
 Cardiovascular events 0 0   N/A
 Deaths 1 0   N/A
  1. aComposite of T2DM, IFG and IGT. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, IFG impaired fasting glycaemia, N/A not applicable