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Table 2 Detail of the studies included in the review

From: How accurate is the ‘Surprise Question’ at identifying patients at the end of life? A systematic review and meta-analysis

First author Year Country Time frame of SQ Diagnosis Clinician Location/setting Total Patient age (Mean, SD) Patient Sex (M:F) Mean QS (/ 9)
Amro [18] 2016 USA 12 months End-stage renal failure Nephrologists Dialysis unit/hospital 201 66 105:46 6.5
Barnes [35] 2008 UK 12 months Heart failure General practitioners General practice 231 77 (71–82)c 120:111 4.5h
Carmena [19] 2016 Spain 12 months End stage renal failure Medical staff HD unit 49 NR NR 5.0h
Cohen [20] 2010 USA 6 months End-stage renal failure Nephrologists HD 5 units 450b 61 (17) 285:225 8.0
Da Silva [40] 2013 UK 12 months End-stage renal failure Nurses and Nephrologists HD units 344 63.6 (15.5) 221:123 6.5
Fenning [30] 2012 UK 6–12 months Heart failure Clinical team Hospital cardiology unit 172 66 105:67 9.0
Feyi [21] 2015 UK 6–12 months End-stage renal failure Consultant renal physician, consultant in palliative medicine and renal nursing staff Dialysis unit/hospital 178 NR 48:22 6.0
Gardiner [36] 2013 UK 12 months Any diagnosis Doctor (Nursing Staff) Acute hospital 297 78d 136:161 5.5
Reida [43] 2012 UK during this admission Any diagnosis Nursing staff 5 wards and 2 specialist palliative care beds 6703 80.6 (11.2) 20:40 (partial) 5.0h
Gopinathana [31] 2016 India 6 months End-stage renal failure Principal investigator Tertiary care hospital 39 NR NR 5.0h
Haga [15] 2012 UK 6–12 months Heart failure Specialist heart failure nurse Hospital community-based patients 138 77 (10) 91:47 7.5
Halbea [22] 2015 Germany 12 months Cancer Medical staff Haematology and oncology outpatient clinic 651 NR NR 5.5
Hamano [23] 2015 Japan 7 days Cancer Palliative care physicians’ 16 palliative care units, 19 hospital-based palliative care teams, and 23 home-based palliative care services 2361 69.1 (12.6) 1358:1003 6.5
Johnson [37] 2012 UK 12 months Heart failure Heart failure nurse Cardiology palliative care team 126 78 (10.7)e 78:47 5.5
Khana [44] 2014 USA 6 months Any diagnosis Intensivists Medical intensive care unit 500 NR NR 3.0h
Lefkowitsa [38] 2015 USA 12 months Cancer Physicians, advanced practice providers, 4 nurses Academic institution 263 NR 0:263 5.5
Lilley [39] 2016 USA 12 month Any diagnosis Surgeons Tertiary care academic hospital 163 NR 78:85 7.5
Moroni [25] 2014 Italy 12 months Cancer General practitioners GPs 231 70.2 (0.9) 117:114 8.5
Moss [27] 2008 USA 12 months End-stage renal failure Nurse practitioner 3 HD units 147 66.4 (14.8) NR 7.5
Moss [26] 2010 USA 12 months Cancer Oncologists Academic cancer centre 826 60 (13) 126:727 7.5
O'Callaghan [28] 2014 New Zealand 6 months Any diagnosis Two expert palliative care clinicians (doctor and a nurse) Tertiary New Zealand teaching hospital 501 NR 47:50g 7.0
Pang [29] 2013 Hong Kong 12 months End-stage renal failure Nephrologists Dialysis centre 367 60.2 (12.3) 204:163 6.5
Southa [32] 2011 UK 6–12 months COPD Clinician Nurse-led unit for COPD 199 70 (37–93)f 92:107 4.5h
Strouta [42] 2016 USA 30 days Sepsis Emergency physicians Emergency Dept 330 NR 181:149 4.5h
Thiagarajan [33] 2012 UK 12 months Any diagnosis Doctor, nurse, physiotherapist and occupational therapist Inpatient of an acute/geriatric medical ward 130 80.7 (18–104)f 55:75 7.5
Vicka [34] 2015 USA 12 months Cancer Oncology clinicians Cancer centre 4617 NR NR 3.0h
  1. aAbstract
  2. bOut of a total sample of 512, 450 had a response to the SQ
  3. cMedian (IQR)
  4. dMedian
  5. eMean number of days (IQR)
  6. fRange
  7. gIncluded one transgender and one unknown
  8. hExcluded for sensitivity analysis
  9. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NR not reported