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Table 2 Overview of included studies

From: What works for whom in the management of diabetes in people living with dementia: a realist review

Focus Methodological approach Types of outcomes
Diabetes AND dementia (n = 10)
 • Clinical guidance on management of diabetes in PLWD
 • Impact of dementia on self-management (SM)
 • SM support for people with cognitive impairment (CI)
 • 3 literature reviews
 • 1 controlled (not randomised) study
 • 1 guideline
 • 2 qualitative
 • 1 description of a service
 • 1 cross-sectional survey
 • 1 mixed methods
 • Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)
 • Hypoglycaemia
 • Impact of dementia on SM
Note that only one study evaluated an intervention (Camp 2015)
Dementia NOT diabetes (n = 31)
Includes:
 • SM support for PLWD
 • Support for family carers
 • Medication management
 • Home-based support for PLWD (e.g. delivered by an occupational therapist)
 • Cognitive rehabilitation
Study type
 • 9 qualitative
 • 9 systematic reviews
 • 7 randomised controlled trials (RCTs, 3 papers report 1 study)
 • 6 other
Patient outcomes include:
 • Cognitive function
 • SM-related behaviours such as knowledge and self-efficacy (but not diabetes focused)
 • Quality of life
 • Experiences and views
 • Mood
Carer outcomes include:
 • Carer stress, burden, quality of life
 • Experiences and views
Diabetes NOT dementia (n = 32)
Participants include older adults, those with complex health needs (comorbidity, frailty, etc.), people with mental illness and adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Includes:
 • Interventions related to improving SM (e.g. use of assistive technology (AT), SM support or decision aids)
 • Better understanding the needs of people with diabetes
 • 5 guidelines
 • 9 other (variety of study designs)
 • 7 qualitative
 • 5 RCTs
 • 5 systematic reviews
 • Glycaemic control
 • Patient knowledge, self-efficacy
 • Diabetes self-care practices
 • Feasibility and acceptability of interventions
 • Quality of life
 • Views and experiences
Other (e.g. people with chronic illness, frail older people, people with multimorbidity or long-term condition) n = 15
Includes:
 • SM support for conditions other than diabetes
 • Service organisation
 • Use of AT in older people
 • 5 qualitative
 • 4 RCTs
 • 1 systematic review
 • 4 other
 • Views and experiences
 • Self-care related outcomes (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy)
 • Use of AT
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