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Table 2 Public health impact of vaccines related to non-health outcomes

From: The public health value of vaccines beyond efficacy: methods, measures and outcomes

Non-health related evaluations of impact of vaccines Traditional evaluations Additional ‘broader’ evaluations
Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis, informed by clinical trials and costing studies Extended cost effectiveness analysis, informed by quasi-experiments
Measures and outcomes Healthcare cost savings
Care-related productivity gains
Health gains
Outcome- and behaviour-related productivity gains
Community health externalities (e.g. improved health outcomes in unvaccinated community members)
Improved economic outcomes at the household and societal levels
Reduction in tourism loss
Averted outbreaks
Reduced health system disruption and impact on other diseases