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Table 2 Public health impact of vaccines related to non-health outcomes

From: The public health value of vaccines beyond efficacy: methods, measures and outcomes

Non-health related evaluations of impact of vaccines Traditional evaluations Additional ‘broader’ evaluations
Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis, informed by clinical trials and costing studies Extended cost effectiveness analysis, informed by quasi-experiments
Measures and outcomes Healthcare cost savings Care-related productivity gains Health gains Outcome- and behaviour-related productivity gains Community health externalities (e.g. improved health outcomes in unvaccinated community members) Improved economic outcomes at the household and societal levels Reduction in tourism loss Averted outbreaks Reduced health system disruption and impact on other diseases