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Table 1 Study population characteristics

From: Plasmodium falciparum EPCR-binding PfEMP1 expression increases with malaria disease severity and is elevated in retinopathy negative cerebral malaria

  Cerebral malaria (CM) (n = 98) Severe malarial anemia (SMA) (n = 47) Asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia (AP) (n = 14) P a
Age (months), median (IQR) 41.5 (30.9–54.6) 33.4 (24.9–52.4) 48.5 (31.0–71.0) 0.14
Sex (male), n (%) 59 (60.2) 35 (74.5) 7 (50.0) 0.14
Weight-for-age z-score, mean (SD) –1.11 (1.49) n = 97 –1.98 (1.39) –0.31 (1.17) 0.0001b
Hemoglobin (g/dL), mean (SD) 7.07 (2.30) 3.81 (0.74) 11.2 (2.15) <0.0001c
Parasite density (/μL), median (IQR) 67,010 (18,030–347,010) n = 96 43,880 (11,940–156,040) n = 46 2170 (520–11,880) <0.0001d
Parasite load (PfHRP-2, ng/mL), median (IQR) 2648 (883–5150) 862 (288–2033) n = 46 88.8 (4.80–158) n = 13 <0.0001c
Sequestered biomass (x10^8), median (IQR)e 17,928 (5323–39,891) n = 96 6249 (1303–15,839) n = 45 469 (0–1309) n = 13 <0.0001c
  1. aAnalysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey post hoc test adjustment for multiple comparisons with log10 transformed values for variables with no normal distribution. Chi-squared test was used for sex, with P < 0.017 considered significant to control for multiple comparisons.
  2. bIn post hoc testing, SMA differed from CM and AP
  3. cIn post hoc testing, all groups differed from each other
  4. dIn post hoc testing, CM and SMA differed from AP
  5. eSee Methods section for calculation of sequestered parasite biomass
  6. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation