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Fig. 4 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 4

From: Choice of surrogate tissue influences neonatal EWAS findings

Fig. 4

Prenatal factors (PFs) explained a similar proportion of inter-individual variation in infant cord blood (CB) and infant cord tissue (CT): CpGs where the inter-individual variation in DNA methylation were explained by PFs. a Heatmap shows the pairwise Spearman correlation (absolute value) between 45 PFs. Each row/column represents each PF. Color changes from white to blue as correlation changes from zero to one. b Pie charts show the percentage of CpGs in each infant tissue whose inter-individual variation could be explained by PFs (out of all CpGs, which showed inter-individual variation in the infant tissue). A CpG whose inter-individual variation could be explained by PFs was defined to be one where the most significant association between the CpG and all 45 PFs attained a P value < 1 × 10–3, the Bonferroni threshold for testing 45 PFs at a family-wise Type 1 error rate of 0.05. c Overlap between PF-associated, non-PF-associated (but variable), and non-variable CpGs in the two tissues. Only CpGs which showed inter-individual variation in at least one tissue were included (N = 98,124). Examining each tissue separately, each of these 98,124 CpGs can either be PF-associated, non-PF-associated, or not variable in each tissue. The number of CpGs in each of these three sets in each tissue is shown in the bottom left bar chart. Collectively, the 98,124 CpGs can be grouped into eight categories. The bottom right panel identifies each of these eight categories, with the solid black dots representing the sets being considered. The top bar chart shows the number of CpGs in each of these eight categories

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