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Table 2 Association of tuberculosis and other covariates with depression estimated by multivariable multinomial logistic regression

From: Depression comorbid with tuberculosis and its impact on health status: cross-sectional analysis of community-based data from 48 low- and middle-income countries

  Depression subtypes (Reference = No depression)
  Subsyndromal depression Brief depressive episode Depressive episode
Characteristic Category OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Tuberculosis Yes vs. No 1.98 (1.47–2.67) <0.0001 1.75 (1.26–2.42) 0.0008 3.68 (3.01–4.50) <0.0001
Age, years Per unit increase 1.02 (1.02–1.03) <0.0001 1.01 (1.00–1.01) 0.0003 1.02 (1.02–1.02) <0.0001
Sex Female vs. Male 1.84 (1.60–2.12) <0.0001 2.19 (1.94–2.46) <0.0001 2.06 (1.87–2.27) <0.0001
Education No formal 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Primary 0.86 (0.72–1.03) 0.1101 0.95 (0.82–1.10) 0.4629 0.92 (0.83–1.03) 0.1414
Secondary 0.76 (0.61–0.94) 0.0133 0.98 (0.81–1.18) 0.8148 0.77 (0.67–0.88) 0.0001
Tertiary 0.83 (0.53–1.30) 0.4073 0.80 (0.62–1.02) 0.0686 0.82 (0.53–1.25) 0.3464
Wealth Poorest 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Poorer 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 0.9855 0.98 (0.84–1.16) 0.8384 0.95 (0.85–1.07) 0.4023
Middle 1.07 (0.86–1.34) 0.5281 0.90 (0.76–1.06) 0.2022 0.96 (0.84–1.08) 0.4651
Richer 1.05 (0.81–1.36) 0.7289 0.97 (0.82–1.16) 0.7557 0.87 (0.76–1.00) 0.0486
Richest 0.90 (0.64–1.26) 0.5175 0.80 (0.66–0.97) 0.0229 0.69 (0.57–0.83) 0.0001
Household size Per unit increase 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.0296 1.01 (0.98–1.03) 0.4946 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.2889
Setting Urban vs. Rural 0.93 (0.79–1.11) 0.4373 1.12 (0.98–1.28) 0.0978 1.05 (0.94–1.17) 0.4040
Current smoking Yes vs. No 1.31 (1.10–1.55) 0.0026 1.26 (1.10–1.44) 0.0007 1.29 (1.14–1.45) <0.0001
Alcohol consumption Lifetime abstainer 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Non-heavy 1.27 (1.09–1.47) 0.0026 1.51 (1.32–1.73) <0.0001 1.10 (0.99–1.22) 0.0685
Infrequent heavy 1.45 (1.02–2.06) 0.0407 1.72 (1.29–2.28) 0.0002 1.03 (0.83–1.29) 0.7845
Frequent heavy 2.10 (1.15–3.85) 0.0159 1.85 (1.18–2.92) 0.0080 1.14 (0.79–1.65) 0.4887
Body mass index, kg/m2 <18.5 1.02 (0.76–1.36) 0.8991 1.01 (0.83–1.23) 0.8988 1.08 (0.90–1.31) 0.4065
18.5–24.9 1.00   1.00   1.00  
25.0–29.9 1.10 (0.89–1.36) 0.3673 0.96 (0.83–1.11) 0.5485 0.99 (0.88–1.11) 0.8586
≥30.0 1.09 (0.84–1.41) 0.5230 1.05 (0.86–1.29) 0.6136 1.05 (0.91–1.22) 0.4831
Diabetes Yes vs. No 1.14 (0.84–1.54) 0.4000 1.39 (1.09–1.76) 0.0076 1.91 (1.62–2.24) <0.0001
  1. Model is adjusted for all variables in the Table and country