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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population (EPIC–Heidelberg, subcohort participants)

From: Blood lipids and lipoproteins in relation to incidence and mortality risks for CVD and cancer in the prospective EPIC–Heidelberg cohort

  Subcohort
Women Men Total
N 1466 (54) 1273 (46) 2739
Age at recruitment, years 49 (35–66) 53 (40–65) 51 (35–66)
BMI, kg/m2 25.3 ± 4.7 26.8 ± 3.6 26.0 ± 4.3
Waist circumference, cm 81 ± 12 96 ± 10 88 ± 13
Smoking (n, %)
 Never 753 (51) 435 (34) 1188 (43)
 Former 406 (28) 509 (40) 915 (33)
 Current 303 (21) 325 (26) 628 (23)
Physical activity (n, %)a
 Inactive 191 (13) 138 (11) 329 (12)
 Moderately inactive 527 (36) 431 (34) 958 (35)
 Moderately active 408 (28) 363 (29) 771 (29)
 Active 340 (23) 341 (27) 681 (25)
Education level (n, %)
 Primary school 403 (28) 377 (29) 780 (29)
 Secondary school 711 (49) 414 (33) 1125 (41)
 University degree 352 (24) 482 (38) 834 (30)
Dietary variables (median, IQR)
 Alcohol consumption, mg/d 4 (2–10) 20 (11–36) 10 (3–22)
 Red meat intake, g/d 19 (10–29) 33 (20–55) 25 (13–42)
 Processed meat intake, g/d 34 (18–56) 56 (33–82) 44 (23–68)
 Fiber intake, mg/d 18 (15–23) 20 (16–24) 19 (15–23)
Diseases and medication (n, %)b
 Hypertension 353 (24) 435 (34) 788 (29)
 Diabetes mellitus 29 (2.0) 63 (4.9) 92 (3.4)
 Kidney diseases 5 (0.3) 19 (1.5) 24 (0.9)
 Liver diseases 9 (0.6) 9 (0.7) 18 (0.7)
 Use of lipid-lowering drugs 47 (3.2) 72 (5.7) 119 (4.3)
Menopausal status (n, %)
 Premenopausal 653 (44.5)
  Current use of pill 82 (5.6)   
 Postmenopausal 552 (37.7)
  Current use of HRT 366 (25.0)   
Biomarkers (median, IQR)
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.80 (5.1–6.5) 5.80 (5.2–6.6) 5.80 (5.1–6.6)
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.60 (1.3–1.9) 1.20 (1.0–1.5) 1.40 (1.1–1.7)
 Apo(a), μmol/L 1.79 (1.6–2.0) 1.55 (1.4–1.7) 1.67 (1.5–1.9)
 ApoB-100, μmol/L 1.06 (0.9–1.2) 1.16 (1.0–1.4) 1.10 (0.9–1.3)
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.30 (0.9–1.9) 1.90 (1.4–2.8) 1.60 (1.1–2.3)
 Lp(a), nmol/Lc 13.40 (6.1–46.4) 12.00 (5.4–42.5) 12.60 (5.8–45.4)
  1. Values are means ± standard deviations or proportions, dietary variables and biomarker values are medians and interquartile ranges
  2. aAccording to the Cambridge Physical Activity Index
  3. bSelf-reported at baseline
  4. cTo convert into mg/dL = nmol/L × 0.4167
  5. apo apolipoprotein, BMI body mass index, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HRT hormone replacement therapy, IQR interquartile range, Lp(a) lipoprotein (a)