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Table 1 Prognostic factors for postoperative complications among older adults undergoing elective surgery

From: Identifying older adults at risk of harm following elective surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Prognostic factor Number of studies Number of patients Odds ratio (95% CI) Heterogeneity (I2)
Poor performance status 5 889 2.58 (1.56–4.25) 0
Smoking status 3 907 2.43 (1.32–4.46) 0
IADL impairment 7 1036 2.27 (1.65–3.14) 0
Frailty 8 1527 2.16 (1.29–3.62) 54.69
Cognitive impairment 8 1851 2.01 (1.44–2.81) 0
ADL impairment 4 829 1.98 (1.31–2.99) 0
Geriatric depression screen 4 777 1.77 (1.22–2.56) 0
Comorbidity score 5 1000 1.55 (1.29–1.87) 0
Depression 2 257 2.04 (0.67–6.23) 0
Poor mobility 2 477 2.51 (0.92–6.84) 63.37
Older age 9 2917 1.07 (1.00–1.14) 17.96
General anesthesia 2 172 0.78 (0.38–1.59) 0
ASA score ≥ 3 3 420 2.62 (0.78–8.79) 0
Malnutrition 7 847 1.22 (0.66–2.24) 31.02
Hypertension 3 912 0.90 (0.52–1.54) 0
Cerebrovascular disease 2 845 0.81 (0.11–5.94) 83.39
Diabetes mellitus 3 912 0.70 (0.39–1.26) 0
Polypharmacy 4 442 1.46 (0.9–2.37) 0
Male sex 6 2141 1.60 (0.88–2.91) 66.24
  1. ADL activities of daily living, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, IADL instrumental activities of daily living, CI confidence interval