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Table 2 Changes in rates of hospitalisation and attendances at different levels of the health system post-rotavirus vaccine introduction in Merseyside, UK

From: Rotavirus vaccine impact and socioeconomic deprivation: an interrupted time-series analysis of gastrointestinal disease outcomes across primary and secondary care in the UK

Age group Mean yearly rate of hospitalisations and attendances (per 10,000)a Percentage reduction in hospitalisation and attendance rates (95% CI)c
Pre-vaccination Post-vaccination
Observed Observed Expectedb Full year January–May June–December
Hospitalisations for laboratory-confirmed rotavirus to Alder Hey
 < 12 m 129 14 122 87 (78 to 93) 94 (86 to 97) 57 (10 to 81)
 12–23 m 123 16 106 84 (73 to 91) 87 (76 to 94) 70 (19 to 91)
 24–59 m 33 10 29 66 (44 to 81) 74 (52 to 87) 35 (to 70 to 77)
 5–14 y 7 0.3 9 95 (84 to 99) 96 (80 to 99.7) 94 (71 to 99.7)
 Total 0–59 m 87 12 81 80 (70 to 87) 88 (80 to 94) 58 (25 to 77)
Hospitalisations for all-cause acute gastroenteritis
 < 12 m 402 230 468 46 (36 to 54) 60 (49 to 69) 35 (20 to 46)
 12–23 m 271 128 311 50 (40 to 59) 66 (56 to 74) 37 (19 to 50)
 24–59 m 72 54 78 26 (11 to 39) 33 (10 to 50) 22 (1 to 38)
 5–14 y 18 20 28 32 (21 to 41) 35 (19 to 48) 29 (13 to 42)
 15–64 y 39 60 66 8 (2 to 14) 11 (1 to 19) 6 (1 to 13)
 65+ 135 157 210 25 (19 to 30) 28 (19 to 36) 22 (15 to 29)
 Total 0–59 m 178 104 213 44 (35 to 53) 58 (46 to 67) 35 (22 to 46)
ED attendances for gastrointestinal conditions (no admission)
 < 12 m 2034 1855 2816 22 (11 to 33) 30 (15 to 42) 16 (2 to 29)
 12–23 m 1146 892 1650 31 (15 to 43) 41 (19 to 57) 23 (4 to 38)
 24–59 m 759 759 1054 12 (-4 to 25) 14 (-15 to 36) 10 (-6 to 24)
 5–14 y 552 661 1038 22 (11 to 31) 17 (-2 to 33) 25 (12 to 36)
 15–64 y 405 503 993 29 (16 to 40) 30 (4 to 49) 28 (14 to 40)
 65+ 341 438 788 21 (4 to 34) 25 (-5 to 46) 18 (-3 to 34)
 Total 0–59 m 1235 1124 1795 23 (11 to 33) 31 (12 to 45) 18 (4 to 29)
Walk-in centre attendances for infectious gastroenteritis
 < 12 m 574 373 644 37 (6 to 58) 51 (12 to 73) 25 (-26 to 55)
 12–23 m 463 256 606 39 (0 to 63) 67 (38 to 83) 5 (-86 to 52)
 24–59 m 196 153 167 18 (-20 to 44) 36 (-12 to 64) -5 (-79 to 38)
 5–14 y 79 71 68 0 (-52 to 34) 6 (-77 to 49) -6 (-86 to 39)
 15–64 y 55 51 61 24 (7 to 38) 29 (0 to 49) 21 (-4 to 40)
 65+ 22 18 52 47 (-15 to 75) 56 (-43 to 86) 38 (-72 to 78)
 Total 0–59 m 362 231 363 32 (7 to 50) 51 (22 to 69) 12 (-27 to 39)
GP consultations for infectious gastroenteritis
 < 12 m 674 492 628 19 (4 to 33) 40 (27 to 51) 3 (-20 to 21)
 12–23 m 590 418 498 13 (-10 to 31) 38 (11 to 56) -11 (-44 to 14)
 24–59 m 184 166 172 8 (-14 to 26) 7 (-29 to 33) 9 (-20 to 31)
 5–14 y 53 56 51 -3 (-21 to 12) -7 (-38 to 17) 0 (-23 to 19)
 15–64 y 41 30 41 26 (18 to 33) 29 (17 to 40) 23 (13 to 32)
 65+ 35 29 48 36 (25 to 45) 43 (30 to 54) 30 (13 to 43)
 Total 0–59 m 363 282 331 13 (-3 to 26) 29 (8 to 45) 0 (-20 to 17)
  1. CI confidence interval, ED emergency department, GP general practice
  2. aTable 1 provides specific denominators for each outcome measure
  3. bExpected in the absence of vaccination using a negative binomial or Poisson model adjusting for month and rotavirus year for the pre-vaccine years
  4. cPercentage change is calculated as 1-IRR. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) was calculated using a negative binomial model or Poisson model adjusting for month and rotavirus year