Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 3 Potential confounders and risk factors evaluated in studies of maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy and risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in offspring

From: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: systematic review of observational studies and methodological considerations

Potential confounder Castro 2016 Clements 2015 Figueroa 2010 Laugesen 2013 Malm 2016 Man 2017 Sujan 2017
Reference 18 17 36 37 31 38 34
Gender Y Y Y Y Y Y
Year of birth Y Y Y Y Y Y
Birth weight Y Y Y Y Y
Gestational age at delivery Y Y Y Y Y Y
Maternal age Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Marital status Y Y
Living alone
Education Y Y Y
Social assistance or economic status Y
Maternal psychiatric historya Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Paternal psychiatric historya Y
Maternal physical historyb Y Y Y Y Y
Pregnancy or delivery complications Y Y Y
Paternal physical history Y
Severity of depression Y Y
Smoking status Y Y
Alcohol or substance misuse Y
Parity Y Y Y Y Y Y
Insurance type Y Y
Ethnicity or country of origin Y Y Y Y
Maternal income Y
Residence Y Y
Employment status Y
Depression recurrence
Drugs other than antidepressantsc Y Y Y Y
  1. aHeterogeneity in definitions used
  2. bIncludes only a limited number of physical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension and autoimmune disease, and varies by study
  3. cIncludes only a limited number of other drugs used during pregnancy and varies by study (benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, teratogens etc.)