Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 5 Pooled crude and adjusted effect estimates for the different comparator and reference groups in included observational studies measuring the association between antidepressant exposure and risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (random-effects)

From: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: systematic review of observational studies and methodological considerations

Comparison Crude risk ratio No. of studies Adjusted risk ratio No. of studies
Maternal exposure during pregnancy vs. unexposed women 2.04 (1.62–2.56) 5 1.38 (1.13–1.69) 7
Maternal exposure pre-pregnancy vs. unexposed women 1.42 (1.09–1.84) 2 1.38 (1.14–1.69) 5
Maternal exposure during pregnancy vs. unexposed women with a history of affective disorder 1.01 (0.80–1.27) 1 0.98 (0.77–1.24) 1
Sibling design 0.8 (0.5 to 1.2) 1 0.88 (0.70–1.11) 3
Paternal exposure during the maternal pregnancy period vs. unexposed women 0 1.71 (1.31–2.23) 1
  1. Not all studies reported crude effect estimates explaining the difference in the number of studies. Pooled effect estimates are presented when reported by two or more studies