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Table 1 Study characteristics and results of studies investigating the association between urban and rural built environments and diabetes mellitus

From: Built environmental characteristics and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Country Country income level Study design Sample size Age Outcomea Outcome assessmentb Result Adjustment for confounding Quality statement
Urban > rural Rural > urban No difference
Aekplakorn et al. [89] 2011 Thailand Upper middle Cross-sectional 18,629 NFG: 44.3 ± 0.3 Diabetes mellitus: 54.1 ± 0.7 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex Moderate
Agyemang et al. [90] 2016 Ghana, Netherlands, Germany, England Lower middle and high Cross-sectional 5659 25–70 years (NR) T2DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex, education Moderate
Ali et al. [91] 1993 Malaysia Upper middle Cross-sectional 681 38.6 ± 13.7 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age Moderate
Al-Moosa et al. [92] 2006 Oman High Cross-sectional 5840 24% >50 years 41% < 30 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Moderate
Anjana et al. [93] 2011 India Lower middle Cross-sectional 13,055 40 ± 14 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample Southern area, western area, eastern area   Northern area Age, sex Moderate
Assah et al. [94] 2011 Cameroon Lower middle Cross-sectional 552 38.4 ± 8.6 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Moderate
Attard et al. [67] 2012 China Upper middle Cross-sectional NA 51 ± 0.4 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample, self-report X    Age, sex, income, region, BMI Strong
Allender et al. [95] 2011 Sri Lanka Lower middle Cross-sectional 4485 46.1 ± 15.1 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex, income Moderate
Bahendeka et al. [41] 2016 Uganda Low Cross-sectional 3689 35.1 ± 12.6 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age, sex, region of residence, floor finishing of dwelling, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol Moderate
Baldé et al. [96] 2007 Guinea Low Cross-sectional 1537 47.7 ± 12.5 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, location, excess of waist, raised systolic BP, raised diastolic BP Moderate
Balogun et al. [97] 2012 Nigeria Lower middle Longitudinal 1330 77.3 ± 0.3 T2DM incidence Self-report X    Age, sex, education Strong
Baltazar et al. [98] 2003 Philippines Lower middle Cross-sectional 7044 39.0 ± 0.5 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age and sex Moderate
Barnabé-Ortiz [99] 2016 Peru Upper middle Longitudinal 3123 24% < 45 years 25% >65 years T2DM incidence Blood sample    X Sex, age, education level, SES, family history of diabetes, daily smoking, hazardous drinking, TV watching for 2+ hours per day, transport-related physical inactivity, fruit and vegetable consumption, BMI, metabolic syndrome Moderate
Bocquier et al. [100] 2010 France High Cross-sectional 3,038,670 48.9 ± 18.6 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary X    Age, sex Strong
Cubbin et al. [23] 2006 Sweden High Cross-sectional 18,081 48% >45 years 25% < 35 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Self-report   X   Age, sex, marital status, immigration status, SES composite, neighbourhood deprivation Moderate
Christensen et al. [101] 2009 Kenya Lower middle Cross-sectional 1459 38.6 ± 12.6 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex Moderate
Dagenais et al. [102] 2016 Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Zimbabwe, China, Colombia, Iran, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Malaysia, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Canada, Sweden, United Arab Emirates Lower, lower middle, upper middle and high Cross-sectional 119,666 52 ± 9.3 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex, residency location, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, PA levels, AHEI score, combined former and current smoking, education level, family history of diabetes, ethnicity Strong
Dar et al. [25] 2015 India Lower middle Cross-sectional 3972 43% >50 years 57% 40–50 years T2DM prevalence Blood sample X    Weak
Davila et al. [103] 2013 Colombia Upper middle Cross-sectional 1026 35% >55 years 35% < 35 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age, sex, education, SES, marital status, smoking, alcohol, intake of fruit and vegetables, PA Strong
Delisle et al. [104] 2012 Benin Low Cross-sectional 541 38.2 ± 0.6 Glycaemic marker: HOMA index Blood sample X    Age, sex, SES, location, diet quality, PA, alcohol, BMI Moderate
Dong et al. [105] 2005 China Upper middle Cross-sectional 12,240 46.4 ± 13.9 T2DM prevalence Blood sample X (men)   X (women) Age, sex Moderate
Du et al. [106] 2016 China Upper middle Cross-sectional 3797 15% >60 years 8% 20–29 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age, sex Moderate
Esteghamati et al. [107] 2009 Iran Upper middle Cross-sectional 3397 23% >55 years 25% < 35 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age, sex, residential area Moderate
Georgousopoulou et al. [108] 2017 Mediterranean islands High Cross-sectional 2749 75 ± 7.3 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex, BMI, physical inactivity, smoking, siesta habit, education, living alone, adherence to Mediterranean diet, GDS, number of friends and family members, frequency of going out with friends and family, number of holiday excursions per year Moderate
Gong et al. [109] 2015 China Upper middle Cross-sectional 5923 38% >50 years 62% < 50 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex, education, PA, smoking, alcohol, BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, hypertension Strong
Hussain et al. [110] 2004 Bangladesh Lower middle Cross-sectional 6312 14% >50 years 46% < 30 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex Moderate
Han et al. [111] 2017 Korea High Longitudinal 7542 52 ± 8.8 T2DM incidence Blood sample X    Age, sex, residential area, family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol, exercise, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol Strong
Katchunga et al. [112] 2012 Congo Low Cross-sectional 699 42.5 ± 18.1 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Moderate
Keel et al. [113] 2017 Australia High Cross-sectional 4836 Non-indigenous: 66.6 ± 9.7 Indigenous: 54.9 ± 8.7 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Self-report   X (indigenous) X (non-indigenous) Age, sex, ethnicity, education, English-speaking at home, ethnicity Moderate
Mayega et al. [114] 2013 Uganda Low Cross-sectional 1497 45.8% >45 years 54.2% < 45 years T2DM prevalence Blood sample   X   Age, sex, residence, occupation, family history of diabetes, BMI, PA level, dietary diversity Strong
Mohan et al. [115] 2016 India Lower middle Cross-sectional 6853 35–70 years (NR) T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age (only women included) Moderate
Msyamboza et al. [116] 2014 Malawi Low Cross-sectional 3056 12.5% >55 years 45% < 35 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age, sex Moderate
Ntandou et al. [117] 2009 Benin Low Cross-sectional 541 38.2 ± 10 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample   X   Age, sex, waist circumference, education, SES, PA, micronutrient adequacy score, preventive diet score, alcohol Moderate
Oyebode et al. [118] 2015 China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa Upper and Lower middle Cross-sectional 39,436 47.3% >60 years 12.3% < 40Y T2DM/T1DM prevalence Self-report X (pooled)    Age, sex, survey design, income quintile, marital status, education Strong
Papoz et al. [119] 1996 New Caledonia High Cross-sectional 9390 30–59 years (NR) T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age Moderate
Pham et al. [120] 2016 Vietnam Lower middle Cross-sectional 16,730 54 ± 8 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X (men)   X (women) Age, sex, socio-demographic factors, anthropometric measures, BP, family history of diabetes Moderate
Raghupathy et al. [121] 2007 India Lower middle Longitudinal 2218 28 ± 1.2 T2DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex, number of household possessions, education, PA, smoking, alcohol, parental consanguinity, family history of diabetes mellitus, body fat, BMI, waist-to-hips ratio, subscapular/triceps ratio Strong
Ramdani et al. [122] 2012 Morocco Lower middle Cross-sectional 1628 54.2 ± 10.9 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age, sex, BMI Moderate
Sadikot et al. [123] 2004 India Lower middle Cross-sectional 41,270 36% >50 years 34% < 40 years T2DM prevalence Blood sample X    Age, sex Moderate
Sobngwi et al. [124] 2004 Cameroon Lower middle Longitudinal 1726 24% >55 years 28% < 35 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample X (women)   X (men) Age, sex, residence, socio-professional category, alcohol, smoking, PA Moderate
Stanifer et al. [125] 2016 Tanzania Low Cross-sectional 481 neighbourhoods 25% >60 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age, sex Moderate
Weng et al. [126] 2007 China Upper middle Cross-sectional 529 NR T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age, sex Moderate
Wu et al. [127] 2016 China Upper middle Cross-sectional 23,010 40 (30.4–56.3) T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample    X Age Moderate
Zhou et al. [128] 2015 China Upper middle Cross-sectional 98,658 20% >60 years 80% < 60 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence   X    Age, sex, region Moderate
  1. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, NR not recorded, PA physical activity, SES socioeconomic status, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, NFG normal fasting glucose, HOMA homeostasis model assessment, GDS geriatric depression scale 
  2. aPrevalence indicates incidence or glycaemic marker level
  3. bBlood sample: study diagnosed diabetes based on glycaemic marker or oral glucose tolerance test; secondary: from data sources such as national health survey; self-report: ever diagnosed with diabetes