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Table 2 Study characteristics of studies investigating physical activity environment, food environment, residential noise and diabetes mellitus

From: Built environmental characteristics and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Country Income level Study design Sample size Age Outcomea Outcome assessmentb Exposure category Exposure assessment Level geodata Quality statement
Ahern et al. [46] 2011 US High Cross-sectional 3128 NR T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary PA, food Place of residence Aggregate Moderate
AlHasan et al. [69] 2016 US High Cross-sectional NA NR T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary Food GIS Aggregate Strong
Astell-Burt et al. [42] 2014 Australia High Cross-sectional 48,072 28% 45–55 years 39% >65 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Self-report PA GIS Individual Moderate
Auchincloss et al. [47] 2009 US High Longitudinal 2285 62.1 ± 10 T2DM incidence Blood sample, self-report PA, food Self-report Individual Moderate
Bodicoat et al. [44] 2014 UK High Cross-sectional 10,476 59 ± 10.4 T2DM prevalence Secondary (screen detected) PA GIS Individual Strong
Bodicoat et al. [72] 2015 UK High Cross-sectional 10,461 59 ± 10.4 T2DM prevalence Secondary (screen detected) Food GIS Individual Strong
Booth et al. [19] 2013 Canada High Longitudinal 1,024,380 30–64 years (NR) T2DM/T1DM incidence Secondary PA    Moderate
Braun et al. [80] 2015 US High Cross-sectional NA NR T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary PA, food Register Aggregate Moderate
Braun et al. [58] 2016 US High Longitudinal 1079 39.7 ± 3.7 Glycaemic marker: ln(HOMA index) Blood sample PA GIS Individual Strong
Braun et al. [57] 2016 US High Longitudinal 583 69.4 ± 9.5 Glycaemic marker: fasting glucose Blood sample PA GIS Individual Strong
Cai et al. [82] 2017 Netherlands High Cross-sectional 93,277 44.9 ± 12.3 Glycaemic marker: fasting glucose Blood sample Noise GIS Aggregate Strong
Carroll et al. [71] 2017 Australia High Longitudinal 2582 50 ± 15 Glycaemic marker: HbA1c Blood sample Food GIS Aggregate Moderate
Christine et al. [48] 2015 US High Longitudinal 2157 60.7 ± 9.9 T2DM incidence Blood sample PA, food GIS, self-report Individual Strong
Creatore et al. [20] 2016 Canada High Longitudinal ±4,505,000 61% 30–49 years 34% 50–65 years T2DM/T1DM incidence Secondary PA GIS Aggregate Strong
Cunningham-Myrie et al. [49] 2015 Jamaica Upper middle Cross-sectional 2848 36.9 ± 2.7 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample PA Environmental audit Individual Strong
Dalton et al. [59] 2016 UK High Longitudinal 23,865 59.1 ± 9.3 T2DM/T1DM incidence Self-report PA GIS Individual Strong
Dzhambov et al. [83] 2016 Bulgaria Upper middle Cross-sectional 581 36.5 ± 15.4 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary Noise Secondary Aggregate Moderate
Eichinger et al. [50] 2015 Austria High Cross-sectional 660 47.1 ± 14.1 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample PA Self-report Individual Moderate
Eriksson et al. [85] 2014 Sweden High Longitudinal 5156 47 ± 5 T2DM incidence Blood sample Noise GIS Individual Moderate
Flynt et al. [73] 2015 US High Cross-sectional NA NR T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary Food Secondary Aggregate Moderate
Frankenfeld et al. [74] 2015 US High Cross-sectional 3227 11% >65 years 75% >18 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample Food GIS Aggregate Moderate
Freedman et al. [68] 2011 US High Cross-sectional NA 100% >50 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Self-report PA, food Secondary Aggregate Moderate
Fujiware et al. [60] 2017 Japan High Cross-sectional 8904 72.5 ± 5.2 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample PA, food GIS Individual Moderate
Gebreab et al. [61] 2017 US High Longitudinal 3661 54 ± 12 T2DM incidence Blood sample PA, Food GIS Individual Strong
Glazier et al. [21] 2014 Canada High Cross-sectional 2,446,029   T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary PA GIS Aggregate Moderate
Hipp et al. [78] 2015 US High Cross-sectional 3109 counties   T2D prevalence Secondary Food GIS Aggregate Moderate
Heideman et al. [86] 2014 Germany High Longitudinal 3604 44.8 ± 13.7 T2DM incidence Secondary Noise Self-report Individual Strong
Lee et al. [45] 2015 Korea High Cross-sectional 13,478 47.6 ± 12.2 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary PA GIS Aggregate Moderate
Liu et al. [79] 2014 US High Cross-sectional 17,254 46.5 ± 18.5 T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample PA, food Self-report Individual Strong
Loo et al. [62] 2017 Canada High Cross-sectional 78,023 35% 18–40 years 23% >65 years Glycaemic marker: HbA1c and fasting glucose Blood sample PA GIS Individual Strong
Maas et al. [66] 2009 Netherlands High Cross-sectional 345,103 38% >45 years 63% < 45 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary PA Register Individual Moderate
Mena et al. [53] 2015 Chile High Cross-sectional 832 45 ± 14 Glycaemic marker: Fasting glucose level Blood sample PA, food GIS Individual Moderate
Meyer et al. [81] 2015 US High Longitudinal 14,379 (observations) 45.2 ± 3.6 Glycaemic marker: HOMA index Blood sample PA, food GIS Individual Moderate
Mezuk et al. [70] 2016 Sweden High Longitudinal 2,948,851 NR T2DM incidence Secondary Food GIS Individual Strong
Morland et al. [75] 2006 US High Cross-sectional 10,763 100% >50 years T2DM/T1DM prevalence Blood sample Food GIS Aggregate Moderate
Müller-Riemenschneider et al. [65] 2013 Australia High Cross-sectional 5970 29% >65 years 30% < 45 years T2DM prevalence Self-report PA GIS Individual Strong
Myers et al. [63] 2016 US High Cross-sectional NA NR T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary PA, food Secondary Aggregate Moderate
Ngom et al. [64] 2016 Canada High Cross-sectional 3,920,000 NR T2DM/T1DM prevalence Secondary PA GIS Aggregate Strong
Paquet et al. [54] 2014 Australia High Longitudinal 3145 51.5 ± 15.5 T2DM incidence Blood sample PA, food GIS Individual Moderate
Schootman et al. [56] 2007 US High Longitudinal 644 56.2 ± 4.3 T2DM/T1DM incidence Self-report PA, noise Self-report, environmental audit Individual Moderate
Sørensen et al. [84] 2013 Denmark High Longitudinal 57,053 56.1 (50.7–64.2) T2DM/T1DM incidence Secondary Noise GIS Individual Moderate
Sundquist et al. [22] 2015 Sweden High Longitudinal 512,061 55 ± 14.9 T2DM incidence Secondary PA GIS Aggregate Moderate
  1. GIS geographic information systems, NA not applicable, NR not recorded, PA physical activity, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. aPrevalence is incidence or glycaemic marker level
  3. bBlood sample: study diagnosed diabetes based on glycaemic marker or oral glucose tolerance test; secondary: from data sources such as national health survey; self-report: ever diagnosed with diabetes