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Fig. 2 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Vaginal dysbiosis increases risk of preterm fetal membrane rupture, neonatal sepsis and is exacerbated by erythromycin

Fig. 2

Bacterial taxonomic groups discriminate between normal-term delivery and women destined to experience PPROM. a Cladogram describing differentially abundant vaginal microbial clades and nodes observed between women subsequently experiencing normal-term delivery or PPROM as identified using LEfSe analysis. b The effect size for each differentially abundant species was estimated using LDA. Vaginal microbiota of patients prior to PPROM was enriched with Bacteroidales, Fusobacteriales and Clostridiales whereas those with a term delivery were comparatively enriched in Lactobacillales. c Stacked bar charts of relative abundance for each individual sampled highlight the emergence of a high-diversity microbial profile and reduced dominance of the Lactobacillus genus. d Comparison of relative abundance across the four differentially expressed bacterial genera showing reduced Lactobacillales (P = 0.0172) and increased Fusobacteriales (P = 0.0035), Clostridiales (P = 0.0356) and Bacteroidales (P = 0.009, Mann–Whitney U, two-tailed) in women prior to membrane rupture compared to controls. LDA latent discriminatory analysis, LEfSe linear discriminant analysis with effect size, PPROM preterm prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes

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