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Table 3 Characteristics of the eligible MAs of MLT for health (with insufficient data for quantitative synthesis)

From: Melatonin and health: an umbrella review of health outcomes and biological mechanisms of action

First author (year) [reference] Health outcome No of participants included in MA No of primary studies included in MA Reported effect size Random-effects summary effect size (95% CI) P random Fixed-effects summary effect size (95% CI) P fixed 95% PI I2 (%) Estimate of the study with lowest SE in MA (95% CI)1 Small-study effects/excess statistical significance
Cancer
 Yang (2014) [70] Risk of breast cancer 4550 5 RR 0.86 (0.78, 0.95) 46.4
 Mills (2005) [68] Risk of death at 1 year 643 10 RR 0.66 (0.59, 0.73) 0.0 0.64 (0.52, 0.78) No
 Seely2 (2012) [37] 13 RR 0.63 (0.53, 0.74) <0.001 78.0   
 Seely2 (2012) [37] Complete response 12 RR 2.33 (1.29, 4.20)
 Seely2 (2012) [37] Partial response/remission 16 RR 1.90 (1.43, 2.51)
 Seely2 (2012) [37] Stable disease 12 RR 1.51 (1.08, 2.12)
Nocturnal hypertension
 Grossman (2011) [57] SBP 72 3 MD –6.10 (–10.69, 1.50) 0.009 –8.00 (–15.02, 0.97)
 Grossman (2011) [57] DBP 72 3 MD –3.51 (–6.14, 0.86) 0.009 –3.90 (–7.68, 0.11)
Primary sleep disorders
 Braam (2009) [169] Sleep latency 170 7 MD –33.8 (–42.97, –24.70) p < 0.01 –32.7 (–47.55, –17.85)
 Brzezinski (2005) [28] 177 11 MD 4.0 (2.5, 5.4)
 Buscemi (2005) [154] 279 14 WMD –11.72 (–18.24, –5.20) 0.0004 81.6 0.30 (–0.70, 1.30)
 Ferracioli-Oda (2013) [29] 1468 15 WMD 10.18 (6.1, 14.27) <0.001 7.06 (4.37, 9.75) <0.001   56.0 1.00 (–3.57, 5.57)
 Van Geijlswijk (2010) [161] 317 9 MD –23.27 (–41.72, –4.83) 0.013
 Braam (2009) [169] Total sleep Time/duration 183 9 MD 0.83 (0.57, 1.08) p < 0.01 1.09 (0.70, 1.48)
 Brzezinski (2005) [28] 112 8 MD    12.8 (2.9, 22.8)
 Ferracioli-Oda (2013) [29] 1016 13 WMD 8.48 (–4.02, 20.98) 0.184 8.25 (1.75, 14.75) 0.013   44.0 7.80 (–0.69, 16.29)
 Rossignol3 (2011) [143] 5 Hedge’s g 1.97 (1.10, 2.84) <0.001
 Van Geijlswijk (2010) [161] 304 9 MD –0.67 (–0.89, –0.45) <0.0001
 Braam (2009) [169] Number of wakes per night 183 9 MD –0.16 (–0.30, 0.02) 0.024 –0.18 (0.35, –0.01)
 Brzezinski (2005) [28] Sleep efficiency 126 7 MD 2.2 (0.2, 4.2)
 Van Geijlswijk (2010) [161] Dim-light melatonin onset 238 6 MD –1.18 (–1.48, –0.89) <0.0001 –0.87 (–1.37, –0.37)
 Van Geijlswijk (2010) [161] Wake-up time 195 5 MD –0.28 (–0.66, 0.09) 0.135 –0.20 (–0.45, 0.06)
Secondary sleep disorders
 Buscemi (2006) [154] Sleep onset latency 163 6 MD –13.22 (–27.33, 0.89) 0.070 2.30 (–0.13, 6.12) 0.060 79.2 5.8 (2.47, 9.13)
 Buscemi (2006) [154] Sleep restriction 508 9 MD –0.97 (–2.26, 0.33) 0.140 –0.89 (–1.98, 0.20) 0.110 4.0 –1.05 (2.30, 0.20)
Miscellaneous
 Marrin (2013) [170] Core temperature 193 16 MD –0.21 (–0.24, –0.18) <0.001
Animal studies
 Macleod (2004) [27] Ischaemic stroke 432 13 ES 0.43 (0.39, 0.64) <0.0001
  1. A dash indicates the data are not estimable or extractable from SRs
  2. CI confidence interval, ES effect size, MA meta-analysis, MD mean difference, MLT melatonin, OR odds ratio, PI prediction interval, RR risk ratio, SE standard error, SMD standardised mean differences, WMD weighted mean differences, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure
  3. 1Estimate of the largest study with lowest standard error from random-effect model
  4. 2Number of participants is not extractable in the article