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Table 1 Morphological data for the mothers and fetuses involved in adrenal studies

From: The human fetal adrenal produces cortisol but no detectable aldosterone throughout the second trimester

Population Characteristic Female fetuses Male fetuses
   Control Smoke-exposed Control Smoke-exposed
Total adrenal samples N 29 19 31 30
 Maternal indices Age (years) 25.5 ± 1.2 23 ± 1.2 23.8 ± 1.06 26.2 ± 1
Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) 24.1 ± 0.8 26 ± 1.3 26 ± 0.95 25.8 ± 1.2
Cigarettes/day 0 ± 0 9.3 ± 0.7 0.2 ± 0.2 10.2 ± 1
 Fetal indices Age (weeks) 14.6 ± 0.4 14.3 ± 0.8 14.6 ± 0.6 14.6 ± 0.5
Weight (g) 77 ± 13.3 75.4 ± 14.1 83.4 ± 12 91.8 ± 12.9
Crown-rump length (CRL, mm) 98.7 ± 5.2 95.1 ± 5 101.4 ± 4.3 105.5 ± 5.5
Ponderal index (weight, g/[CRL, cm3]) 70.2 ± 6.7 72.8 ± 5.4 68.8 ± 3.3 63.2 ± 1.8
Plasma cotinine (ng/mL) 6.8 ± 3.3 30.2 ± 5.4 5.3 ± 1.2 41.6 ± 6.4
Sub-population: plasma steroidsa N 14 16 13 17
 Maternal indices Age (years) 24.3 ± 1.7 23.2 ± 1.3 24.5 ± 1.8 24.7 ± 1.2
BMI (kg/m2) 23.5 ± 1.2 23.8 ± 1.3 26.2 ± 1.4 25.3 ± 1.4
Cigarettes/day 0 ± 0 11 ± 1.3 0 ± 0 12.5 ± 1.1
 Fetal indices Age (weeks) 15.6 ± 0.6 15.2 ± 0.6 15.2 ± 0.6 15.1 ± 0.6
Weight (g) 104.8 ± 19.9 93.6 ± 16.7 101.7 ± 22.5 97.1 ± 19.3
CRL (mm) 109.3 ± 7.7 106.9 ± 5.7 108 ± 7.4 107.2 ± 7.4
Ponderal index (weight, g/[CRL, cm3]) 64.9 ± 2.6 64 ± 2.6 73.9 ± 4.7 65 ± 2
Plasma cotinine (ng/mL) 3.3 ± 1.2 41.6 ± 2.8 2.6 ± 0.9 48.6 ± 2.2
Sub-population: mRNA/protein/steroidsa N 15 15 15 15
 Maternal indices Age (years) 24.7 ± 1.6 23.2 ± 1.4 22.9 ± 1.3 26.6 ± 1.4
BMI (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 0.8 26.5 ± 1.4 26.23 ± 1.5 24.6 ± 1.6
Cigarettes/day 0 ± 0 8.8 ± 0.8 0 ± 0 12 ± 1.3
 Fetal indices Age (weeks) 15.3 ± 0.6 15.1 ± 0.6 15.2 ± 1.2 15.2 ± 0.6
Weight (g) 97 ± 19.5 84.8 ± 17 94.9 ± 18.8 94.7 ± 19.9
CRL (mm) 106.4 ± 6.8 97.4 ± 6.1 104.3 ± 6.9 102.3 ± 8.7
Ponderal index (weight, g/[CRL, cm3]) 66.5 ± 2.3 75.5 ± 6.7 72 ± 4.6 67 ± 3.1
Plasma cotinine (ng/mL) 7.6 ± 4.6 30.2 ± 5.4 4 ± 1.5 50.9 ± 5.7
  1. aAlthough there is some overlap between the two study sub-populations, not all plasma samples were from fetuses where the adrenal glands were collected. Therefore, the two populations were not analysed together