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Table 1 Overview of adaptive designs with examples of trials that employed these methods

From: Adaptive designs in clinical trials: why use them, and how to run and report them

Design Idea Examples
Continual reassessment method Model-based dose escalation to estimate the maximum tolerated dose TRAFIC [136], Viola [137], RomiCar [138]
Group-sequential Include options to stop the trial early for safety, futility or efficacy DEVELOP-UK [139]
Sample size re-estimation Adjust sample size to ensure the desired power DEVELOP-UK [139]
Multi-arm multi-stage Explore multiple treatments, doses, durations or combinations with options to ‘drop losers’ or ‘select winners’ early TAILoR [31], STAMPEDE [67, 140], COMPARE [141], 18-F PET study [142]
Population enrichment Narrow down recruitment to patients more likely to benefit (most) from the treatment Rizatriptan study [143, 144]
Biomarker-adaptive Incorporate information from or adapt on biomarkers FOCUS4 [145], DILfrequency [146]; examples in [147, 148]
Adaptive randomisation Shift allocation ratio towards more promising or informative treatment(s) DexFEM [149]; case studies in [150, 151]
Adaptive dose-ranging Shift allocation ratio towards more promising or informative dose(s) DILfrequency [146]
Seamless phase I/II Combine safety and activity assessment into one trial MK-0572 [152], Matchpoint [153, 154]
Seamless phase II/III Combine selection and confirmatory stages into one trial Case studies in [133]