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Table 3 Predicted change in Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition (WPPSI-III) raw scores after study meals with fish (n = 105) and meat (n = 113)

From: Fatty fish intake and cognitive function: FINS-KIDS, a randomized controlled trial in preschool children

  Main analyses Sub-analyses
   Models adjusted for
   Pre-score, ageb Pre-score, age, compliancec Pre-score, age, compliance, interaction treatment*complianced
Intervention Pre Mean (SD) Post Mean (SD) p a Change Mean (95% CI) p Change Mean (95% CI) p Change Mean (95% CI) p
WPPSI-III          
Total raw score
 Fish 145.3 (35.0) 162.7 (36.2) < 0.0001 17.7 (14.8 to 20.7) 0.97 20.4 (17.5 to 23.3) 0.0060 21.9 (19.4 to 24.5)  
 Meat 141.7 (33.5) 159.8 (33.1) < 0.0001 17.8 (15.0 to 20.6)   15.2 (12.4 to 18.0)   17.2 (14.7 to 19.8)  
 Model fite        < 0.0001   < 0.0001
Verbal raw score
 Fish 56.6 (13.4) 60.4 (14.2) < 0.0001 3.8 (2.6 to 5.0) 0.59 4.7 (3.6 to 5.8) 0.11 4.9 (3.8 to 6.1)  
 Meat 55.9 (12.7) 60.2 (12.5) < 0.0001 4.3 (3.1 to 5.4)   3.4 (2.4 to 4.5)   3.7 (2.6 to 4.8)  
 Model fite      0.0061   < 0.0001   0.072
Information
 Fish 23.8 (3.2) 24.8 (3.0) < 0.0001 1.0 (0.6 to 1.4) 0.63 1.1 (0.7 to 1.4) 0.90 1.1 (0.7 to 1.4)  
 Meat 23.5 (3.2) 24.7 (3.0) < 0.0001 1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)   1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)   1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)  
 Model fite        0.067   0.95
Vocabulary
 Fish 18.0 (6.5) 19.2 (6.9) 0.015 1.1 (0.3 to 1.9) 0.99 1.7 (0.9 to 2.4) 0.0468 1.7 (1.0 to 2.5)  
 Meat 18.4 (6.1) 19.5 (5.9) 0.006 1.1 (0.4 to 1.9)   6 (−0.1 to 1.3)   0.7 (−0.1 to 1.4)  
 Model fite        < 0.0001   0.36
Word Reasoning
 Fish 14.8 (5.2) 16.4 (5.5) < 0.0001 1.8 (1.1 to 2.4) 0.50 2.0 (1.4 to 2.7) 0.54 2.2 (1.5 to 2.8)  
 Meat 13.9 (4.9) 16.0 (5.1) < 0.0001 2.1 (1.4 to 2.7)   1.8 (1.1 to 2.4)   1.9 (1.3 to 2.6)  
 Model fite        0.0001   0.036
Performance raw score
 Fish 51.7 (10.7) 57.3 (10.9) < 0.0001 6.0 (4.7 to 7.3) 0.65 6.4 (5.2 to 7.7) 0.16 6.6 (5.4 to 7.9)  
 Meat 49.2 (10.4) 55.2 (10.1) < 0.0001 5.6 (4.4 to 6.8)   5.2 (4.0 to 6.4)   5.4 (4.2 to 6.6)  
 Model fite        0.0018   0.13
Block Design
 Fish 24.6 (3.6) 26.2 (3.4) < 0.0001 1.7 (1.3 to 2.1) 0.068 1.8 (1.3 to 2.2) 0.0269 1.9 (1.4 to 2.3)  
 Meat 24.3 (3.7) 25.5 (3.4) < 0.0001 1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)   1.1 (0.6 to 1.5)   1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)  
 Model fite        0.14   0.15
Matrix Reasoning
 Fish 14.2 (4.8) 16.5 (4.7) < 0.0001 2.5 (1.8 to 3.1) 0.52 2.5 (1.8 to 3.2) 0.48 2.5 (1.8 to 3.2)  
 Meat 13.5 (4.3) 15.8 (3.9) < 0.0001 2.2 (1.6 to 3.1)   2.2 (1.5to 2.8)   2.2 (1.5 to 2.8)  
 Model fite        0.72   0.91
Picture Concepts
 Fish 13.0 (5.0) 14.6 (5.1) 0.0015 2.1 (1.1 to 3.0) 0.91 2.4 (1.4 to 3.3) 0.26 2.4 (1.5 to 3.3)  
 Meat 11.5 (5.4) 1.39 (5.2) < 0.0001 2.0 (1.1 to 2.9)   1.7 (0.8 to 2.6)   1.8 (0.9 to 2.7)  
 Model fite        0.0011   0.45
Processing speed raw score
 Fish 37.0 (17.1) 45.0 (18.2) < 0.0001 8.1 (5.9 to 10.3) 0.83 9.3 (7.1 to 11.4) 0.099 10.5 (8.4 to 12.5)  
 Meat 36.6 (16.3) 44.4 (18.6) < 0.0001 7.8 (5.7 to 9.9)   6.7 (4.6 to 8.8)   8.0 (6.0 to 10.0)  
 Model fite        < 0.0001   < 0.0001
Coding
  Fish 23.5 (12.0) 28.1 (12.9) < 0.0001 4.5 (2.9 to 6.2) 0.58 5.4 (3.8 to 7.0) 0.41 6.2 (4.6 to 7.7)  
 Meat 23.6 (10.6) 28.8 (12.4) < 0.0001 5.2 (3.6 to 6.8)   4.4 (2.9 to 6.0)   5.3 (3.8 to 6.8)  
 Model fite        < 0.0001   < 0.0001
Symbol Search
 Fish 13.5 (7.1) 17.0 (6.9) < 0.0001 3.6 (2.7 to 4.5) 0.12 3.9 (3.0 to 4.8) 0.0163 4.2 (3.3 to 5.1)  
 Meat 13.0 (7.3) 15.6 (7.5) < 0.0001 2.6 (1.7 to 3.5)   2.3 (1.4 to 3.2)   2.6 (1.7 to 3.5)  
 Model fite        0.0044   0.0027
  1. Pre- and post-intervention data are given as mean (SD), change as mean (95% CI)
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, SD standard deviation
  3. aPaired samples t test for comparison of individual pre- and post-intervention values within each intervention group
  4. bLinear mixed effect model adjusted for pre-intervention score and age
  5. cLinear mixed effect model adjusted for pre-intervention score, age, and compliance (amount of fish/meat consumed)
  6. dLinear mixed effect model adjusted for pre-intervention score, age, and interaction between treatment (intervention group) and compliance, mean values
  7. eLikelihood ratio test to compare the goodness of fit to the previous model
  8. A random intercept for kindergarten was included in all linear mixed model analyses