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Table 1 Socio-demographic and medical characteristics of study participants

From: Prevalence, risk factors and behavioural and emotional comorbidity of acute seizures in young Kenyan children: a population-based study

Characteristics Younger children ≤36 months (4539) Older children >36 months (2508) Total (N = 7047) p value
Child’s age in months: median (IQR) 25 (19–31) 57 (47–68) 46 (30–62) <0.001
Male 2315 (51%) 1279 (51%) 3594 (51%) 0.99
Mother’s age in years: median (IQR) 28 (23–34) 30 (25–36) 29 (25–35) <0.001
Administered a risk factor questionnaire
  N = 1122 N = 2085 N = 3207  
Socio-demographic information
Mother’s marital status     0.09
 Single 57 (5%) 95 (5%) 152 (5%)  
 Separated/divorced 62 (6%) 139 (7%) 201 (6%)  
 Widowed 13 (1%) 46 (2%) 59 (2%)  
 Married 990 (88%) 1805 (87%) 2795 (87%)  
Mother’s religion     0.63
 None 266 (24%) 532 (26%) 798 (25%)  
 Traditional 64 (6%) 108 (5) 172 (5%)  
 Islam 133 (9%) 254 (12%) 387 (12%)  
 Christian 659 (59%) 1191 (57%) 1850 (58%)  
Mother’s education level     0.52
 None 326/1120 (34%) 631/2080 (30%) 957/3200 (35%)  
 Primary 707/1120 (63%) 1288/2080 (62%) 1995/3200 (62%)  
 Secondary 67/1120 (6%) 135/2080 (6%) 202/3200 (6%)  
 Tertiary 20/1120 (2%) 26/2080 (2%) 46/3200 (2%)  
Mother’s ethnicity     0.05
 Ethnicity not Mijikenda 51 (5%) 115 (6%) 166 (5%)  
 Other Mijikenda 77 (7%) 117 (6%) 194 (6%)  
 Kauma 121 (11%) 190 (9%) 311 (10%)  
 Chonyi 303 (27%) 643 (31%) 946 (30%)  
 Giriama 570 (51%) 1018 (49%) 1588 (50%)  
Mother employed 761/1121 (68%) 1515/2080 (73%) 2276/3201 (71%) 0.003
Father employed 958/1031 (93%) 1786/1937 (92%) 2744/2968 (92%) 0.48
Number of children: median (IQR) 4 (2–6) 5 (3–6) 4 (3–6) <0.001
Socioeconomic status and household information
Water availability     0.49
 Infrequent 205 (18%) 419 (20%) 624 (19%)  
 Weekly 138 (12%) 242 (12%) 380 (12%)  
 Daily 231 (21%) 447 (21%) 678 (21%)  
 Always 548 (49%) 977 (47%) 1525 (48%)  
House status     
 Dilapidated 76 (7%) 107 (5%) 183 (6%) 0.29
 Major repairs needed 105 (9%) 195 (9%) 300 (9%)  
 Incompletely built 29 (3%) 58 (3%) 87 (3%)  
 Minor/no repairs needed 912 (81%) 1723 (83%) 2635 (82%)  
Toilet type     0.21
 Bush/none 309/1121 (28%) 585/2082 (28%) 894/3203 (28%)  
 Traditional pit 651/1121 (58%) 1161/2082 (56%) 1812/3203 (57%)  
 Ventilated pit 105/1121 (9%) 195/2082 (9%) 300/3203 (9%)  
 Flush 71 (5%) 75 (5%) 146 (5%)  
Livestock owned     0.21
 None 507 (45%) 1004 (48%) 1511 (47%)  
  <5 242 (22%) 406 (19%) 648 (20%)  
  >5 373 (33%) 675 (32%) 1048 (33%)  
Pregnancy and birth history
 Pregnancy problems 88/1121 (8%) 140/2083 (8%) 228/3204 (7%) 0.24
 Caffeine, smoking or alcohol in pregnancy 11/161 (7%) 26/335 (8%) 37/496 (7%) 0.71
 Mother’s age at birth in years 18 (17–20) 18 (17–20) 18 (17–20) 0.02
 Delivery at home 646 (58%) 1332 (64%) 1978 (62%) <0.001
 Premature birth 109/162 (67%) 214/334 (64%) 323/496 (65%) 0.48
 Adverse perinatal events 42/1121 (4%) 48/2082 (2%) 90/3203 (2%) 0.02
Medical history
 Family history of seizures 127 (11%) 254 (12%) 381 (12%) 0.07
 Family history of febrile seizures 102 (9%) 218 (10%) 320 (10%) 0.22
 Previous hospitalisation 103/1119 (10%) 288/2076 (14%) 391/3195 (12%) <0.001
 Head injury 12/1122 (1%) 54/2083 (3%) 66/3205 (4%) 0.004
 Dogs and cats in compound 506/1075 (47%) 913/1983 (46%) 1419/3058 (46%) 0.59
 Eats cassava 832 (74%) 1673 (80%) 2505 (75%) <0.001
 Eats soil 211 (19%) 167 (8%) 378 (12%) <0.001
 Bed net use 975 (87%) 1769 (85%) 2744 (86%) 0.12
 Snores at night 253 (23%) 477 (23%) 730 (23%) 0.84
 Deceased father 34/1051 (3%) 65/1967 (3%) 99/3018 (3%) 0.92
  1. The risk factors questionnaire was administered to 3207 (46%) of the 7047 children screened, and included most acute seizures
  2. IQR interquartile range
  3. All p values > 0.01 are reported to 2 decimal places, while those <0.01 are reported to 3 decimal places
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