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Table 3 Univariate baseline differences between trajectories for the whole sample

From: General and disease-specific pain trajectories as predictors of social and political outcomes in arthritis and cancer

Covariate Low/no chronic pain (a)N = 7257 Increasing chronic pain (b)N = 1428 Decreasing chronic pain (c)N = 1010 Severe regressing chronic pain (d)N = 2282
BMI 26.36 (6.45)b, d 27.19 (8.16)a 26.67 (7.72) 27.18 (9.97)a
Age 63.16 (10.77)c, d 63.80 (10.20)d 64.68 (10.64)a 65.70 (10.37)a, b
GHQ-12 0.78 (1.90)b, c, d 1.33 (2.45)a, d 1.46 (2.63)a, d 2.22 (3.19)a, b, c
Sex (F) 3803 (52.40%)a, b, c 833 (58.33%) a, d 608 (60.20%) a 1455 (63.76%) a, b
Non-white ethnicity 193 (2.66%)a, b, c 52 (3.64%)a, c 15 (1.49%)a, b, d 91 (3.99%)a, c, d
Alcohol:
 Non-drinker 610 (8.41%)a, b, c 176 (12.32%)a, d 132 (13.07%)a, d 477 (20.90%)a, b, c
 Special occasions 1259 (17.35%) 281 (19.68%) 202 (20.00%) 573 (25.11%)
 Monthly 754 (10.39%) 166 (11.62%) 119 (11.78%) 219 (9.60%)
 Weekly 2381 (32.81%) 412 (28.85%) 288 (28.51%) 532 (23.31%)
 Daily 1880 (25.91%) 327 (22.90%) 228 (22.57%) 380 (16.65%)
 > 2 daily 328 (4.52%) 62 (4.34%) 36 (3.56%) 80 (3.51%)
Qualifications
 Higher education 1944 (26.79%)a, b, c 288 (20.17%)a, d 183 (18.12%)a, d 287 (12.58%)a, b, c
 Secondary education 2111 (29.09%) 410 (28.71%) 281 (27.82%) 502 (22.00%)
 Other 585 (8.06%) 126 (8.82%) 99 (9.8%) 194 (8.50%)
 None 2600 (35.83%) 603 (42.23%) 446 (44.16%) 1292 (56.62%)
 Ever smoked 4479 (61.72%)b, d 930 (65.13%)a, d 635 (62.87%)d 1576 (69.06%)a, b, c
 Smokes now 1210 (16.67%)d 269 (18.84%)d 174 (17.23%)d 508 (22.26%)a, b, c
 Holidays 1.89 (0.99)b, c, d 1.72 (1.00)a, d 1.66 (1.03)a, d 1.40 (1.02)a, b, c
 Civic engagement 0.60 (0.82)d 0.57 (0.81)d 0.55 (0.81)d 0.46 (0.74)a, b, c
 Social engagement 0.58 (0.73)b, c, d 0.51 (0.70)a, d 0.49 (0.69)a, d 0.40 (0.63)a, b, c
 Social activities 2.09 (1.09)b, c, d 1.83 (1.15)a, d 1.72 (1.08)a, d 1.47 (1.13)a, b, c
 Wishing to do more social activities 1.16 (1.38)b, c, d 1.45 (1.46)a 1.40 (1.42)a 1.53 (1.46)a
 Voted, 2001 5558 (83.73%)d 1127 (83.36%)d 783 (82.77%)d 1555 (78.26%)a, b, c
 Voted, 2005 3611 (88.74%)b, c, d 830 (85.57%)a, d 582 (83.5%)a 821 (79.94%)a, b
 Political membership 1064 (16.57%)b, d 186 (14.32%)a, d 133 (14.70%)d 182 (9.67%)a, b, c
  1. All comparisons are significant at the level p < 0.001
  2. Standard deviations are reported in brackets for continuous variables (BMI, age, GHQ-12 and social engagement measures)
  3. Superscripted letters denote a significant post-hoc difference between columns