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Table 4 Univariate baseline differences between classes, arthritis LCGA

From: General and disease-specific pain trajectories as predictors of social and political outcomes in arthritis and cancer

Covariate Low/no chronic pain (a)N = 381 Increasing chronic pain (b)N = 143 Decreasing chronic pain (c)N = 147 Severe regressing chronic pain (d)N = 218 Corrected p (false discovery rate)
BMI 26.34 (7.55)d 27.48 (7.64) 26.31 (8.95)d 29.01 (8.44)a, c 0.029*
Age 64.98 (10.55) 62.90 (9.68)c 66.66 (10.31)bd 63.80 (10.60)c 0.028*
GHQ-12 1.09 (2.22)d 1.37 (2.34)d 1.56 (2.90) 2.29 (3.39)a, b < 0.001***
Sex (F) 238 (62.47%) 77 (53.85%) 92 (62.59%) 144 (66.06%) 0.19
Non-white ethnicity 9 (2.38%) 11 (7.69%) 2 (1.36%) 5 (2.30%) 0.031*
Alcohol:      0.095
 Non-drinker 49 (12.86%) 19 (13.29%) 19 (12.93%) 34 (15.60%)  
 Special occasions 68 (17.85%) 26 (18.18%) 31 (21.09%) 64 (29.36%)  
 Monthly 27 (7.09%) 15 (10.49%) 15 (10.20%) 22 (10.09%)  
 Weekly 137 (35.96%) 47 (32.87%) 48 (32.65%) 52 (23.85%)  
 Daily 83 (21.78%) 29 (20.28%) 31 (21.09%) 38 (17.43%)  
 > 2 daily 17 (4.46%) 5 (3.5%) 3 (2.04%) 4 (1.83%)  
Qualifications      0.023*
 Higher education 99 (25.98%)c, d 34 (23.78%) 20 (13.61%)a 36 (16.51%)a  
 Secondary education 100 (26.25%) 41 (28.67%) 37 (25.17%) 47 (21.56%)  
 Other 24 (6.3%) 11 (7.69%) 18 (12.24%) 19 (8.72%)  
 None 158 (41.47%) 57 (39.86%) 72 (48.98%) 116 (53.21%)  
 Ever smoked 229 (60.1%) 86 (60.14%) 96 (65.31%) 145 (66.51%) 0.39
 Smokes now 48 (12.6%) 24 (16.78%) 27 (18.37%) 51 (23.39%) 0.027*
 Osteoarthritis 171 (44.88%) 68 (47.55%) 66 (44.9%) 102 (46.79%) 0.93
 Rheumatoid arthritis 73 (19.16%) 27 (18.88%) 25 (17.01%) 52 (23.85%) 0.43
 Other arthritis 49 (12.86%) 22 (15.38%) 17 (11.56%) 21 (9.63%) 0.43
 Holidays 1.90 (1.01)c, d 1.80 (0.99) 1.55 (1.10)a 1.51 (0.92)a < 0.001***
 Civic engagement 0.63 (0.81) 0.65 (0.82) 0.50 (0.80) 0.46 (0.76) 0.095
 Social engagement 0.61 (0.72)c 0.58 (0.80) 0.39 (0.60)a 0.51 (0.73) 0.052
 Social activities 2.07 (1.16)c, d 1.89 (1.16) 1.64 (1.15)a 1.62 (1.21)a 0.004**
 Wishing to do more social activities 1.31 (1.48) 1.64 (1.51) 1.38 (1.38) 1.40 (1.49) 0.43
 Voted, 2001 295 (83.33%)d 116 (86.57%)d 116 (85.93%)d 144 (75.39%)a, b, c 0.048*
 Voted, 2005 196 (91.16%)c,d 83 (87.37%) 69 (82.14%)a 91 (76.47%)a 0.012*
 Political membership 53 (15.41%) 27 (20.93%) 20 (16.26%) 25 (13.89%) 0.43
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Standard deviations are reported in brackets for continuous variables (BMI, age, GHQ-12 and social engagement measures)
  3. Superscripted letters denote a significant post-hoc difference between columns