Skip to main content

Table 5 Univariate baseline differences between classes, cancer

From: General and disease-specific pain trajectories as predictors of social and political outcomes in arthritis and cancer

Covariate Emerging chronic pain (a)N = 308 Low severity chronic pain (b)N = 48 Fluctuating chronic pain (c)N = 99 Corrected p (false discovery rate)
BMI 26.12 (6.16) 26.71 (9.02) 24.40 (10.22) 0.30
Age 66.44 (10.50) 62.52 (11.90)c 68.02 (11.14)b 0.042*
GHQ-12 0.86 (2.08)b, c 2.29 (3.41)a 1.82 (2.74)a < 0.001***
Sex (F) 172 (55.84%) 35 (72.92%) 60 (60.61%) 0.18
Non-white ethnicity 1 (0.33%) 1 (2.08%) 5 (5.26%) 0.015*
Alcohol:     0.015*
 Non-drinker 21 (6.82%)c 7 (14.58%) 15 (15.15%)c  
 Special occasions 46 (14.94%) 7 (14.58%) 27 (27.27%)  
 Monthly 38 (12.34%) 11 (22.92%) 6 (6.06%)  
 Weekly 95 (30.84%) 10 (20.83%) 22 (22.22%)  
 Daily 85 (27.60%) 11 (22.92%) 24 (24.24%)  
  > 2 daily 72 (7.14%) 2 (4.17%) 4 (4.04%)  
Qualifications     0.006**
 Higher education 103 (33.44%)c 10 (20.83%) 14 (14.14%)a  
 Secondary education 74 (24.03%) 16 (33.33%) 20 (20.20%)  
 Foreign/other 28 (9.09%) 6 (12.50%) 12 (12.12%)  
 None 103 (33.44%) 16 (33.33%) 53 (53.54%)  
 Ever smoked 198 (64.29%) 25 (52.08%) 65 (65.66%) 0.26
 Current smoker 40 (12.99%) 8 (16.67%) 16 (16.16%) 0.67
Type of cancer     0.26
 Lung 5 (1.62%) 1 (2.08%) 7 (7.07%)  
 Breast 95 (30.84%) 18 (37.50%) 30 (30.30%)  
 Colon, bowel or rectum 37 (12.01%) 6 (12.50%) 14 (14.14%)  
 Lymphoma 14 (4.55%) 1 (2.08%) 2 (2.02%)  
 Leukaemia 0 1 (2.08%) 1 (1.01%)  
 Melanoma 27 (8.77%) 3 (6.25%) 9 (9.09%)  
 Other 130 (42.21%) 18 (37.50%) 36 (36.37%)  
 Years since cancer diagnosis 8.21 (8.35) 8.06 (8.20) 8.33 (8.25) 0.98
 Holidays 1.87 (1.00) 1.78 (0.94) 1.70 (1.08) 0.45
 Civic engagement 0.75 (0.92) 0.70 (0.81) 0.53 (0.83) 0.26
 Social engagement 0.65 (0.85) 0.43 (0.62) 0.49 (0.69) 0.23
 Social activities 2.21 (1.19)c 2.29 (1.21)c 1.56 (1.09)a, b 0.006**
 Wishing to do more social activities 1.01 (1.30) 1.41 (1.50) 1.38 (1.33) 0.24
 Voted, 2001 254 (89.12%) 33 (82.62%) 66 (81.48%) 0.24
 Voted, 2005 158 (91.28%)b, c 19 (76.00%)a 33 (78.57%)a 0.031*
 Political membership 36 (13.09%) 2 (4.35%) 11 (14.67%) 0.26
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Standard deviations are reported in brackets for continuous variables (BMI, age, GHQ-12 and social engagement measures)
  3. Superscripted letters denote a significant post-hoc difference between columns