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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics and cardiovascular changes

From: Prediction of autonomic dysreflexia during urodynamics: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics All patients (n = 300) Female (n = 41) Male (n = 259) p value
Mean (SD) age (years) 51 (16) 57 (18) 51 (16) 0.016
Mean (SD) time after SCI (years) 10 (12) 6 (10) 11 (12) 0.019
Stage of SCIa
 Acute vs. chronic, no. (%) 68 (23) vs. 232 (7) 16 (39) vs. 25 (61) 52 (20) vs. 207 (80) 0.007
Type of plegia
 Tetraplegic vs. paraplegic, no. (%) 98 (33) vs. 202 (67) 11 (27) vs. 30 (73) 87 (45) vs. 172 (65) 0.391
Completeness of lesion (AIS)
 Complete (AIS A) vs. incomplete (AIS B-D), no. (%) 120 (40) vs. 180 (60) 9 (22) vs. 32 (78) 111 (43) vs. 148 (57) 0.011
 Motor complete (AIS A–B) vs. incomplete (AIS C–D), no. (%) 170 (57) vs. 130 (43) 15 (37) vs. 26 (63) 155 (60) vs. 104 (40) 0.005
 AIS A, no. (%) 120 (40) 9 (22) 111 (43)  
 AIS B, no. (%) 50 (17) 6 (15) 44 (17)  
 AIS C, no. (%) 45 (15) 9 (22) 36 (14)  
 AIS D, no. (%) 85 (28) 17 (41) 68 (26)  
Lesion level
 At or above T6 vs. below T6, No. (%) 166 (55) vs. 134 (45) 16 (39) vs. 25 (61) 150 (58) vs. 109 (42) 0.024
 Cervical, no. (%) 98 (33) 11 (27) 87 (33)  
 Thoracic, no. (%) 172 (57) 20 (49) 152 (59)  
 Lumbar (L1–L2), no. (%) 30 (10) 10 (24) 20 (8)  
Start of UDIb
 Blood pressure
  Mean (SD) systolic (mmHg) 127 (23) 123 (24) 127 (23) 0.237
  Mean (SD) diastolic (mmHg) 76 (13) 71 (15) 76 (13) 0.010
 Mean (SD) heart rate (bpm) 75 (15) 76 (14) 75 (16) 0.956
Cardiovascular change (Δ) during UDIb
 Blood pressure
  Mean (SD) systolic (mmHg) 42 (34) 38 (22) 43 (35) 0.384
  Mean (SD) diastolic (mmHg) 17 (14) 18 (12) 17 (14) 0.697
 Mean (SD) heart rate (bpm) –8 (14) –5 (10) –8 (15) 0.086
Presence of NDOb
 Yes vs. No, no. (%) 249 (83) vs. 51 (17) 34 (83) vs. 7 (17) 215 (83) vs. 44 (17) 0.989
  1. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between female and male patients are highlighted in bold
  2. All values are presented as mean (SD) or number of patients (%)
  3. aSCI defined as “acute” upon 300 days since injury and “chronic” after 300 days according to the European Multicenter Study about Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI, www.emsci.org)
  4. bIndicating the worse of two same session UDIs
  5. AIS American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale, NDO neurogenic detrusor overactivity, SCI spinal cord injury, SD standard deviation, UDI urodynamic investigation