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Table 3 Baseline characteristics and cardiovascular changes: differences between patients with and without AD

From: Prediction of autonomic dysreflexia during urodynamics: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics No AD (n = 96) AD (n = 204) p value
Sex
 Male vs. female, no. (%) 88 (92) vs. 8 (8) 171 (84) vs. 33 (16) 0.065
 Mean (SD) age (years) 49 (15) 53 (16) 0.044
 Mean (SD) time after SCI (years) 10 (10) 11 (12) 0.706
Stage of SCIa
 Acute vs. chronic, no. (%) 20 (21) vs. 76 (79) 48 (23) vs. 156 (77) 0.603
Type of plegia
 Tetraplegic vs. paraplegic, no. (%) 10 (10) vs. 86 (90) 88 (43) vs. 116 (57) < 0.001
Completeness of lesion (AIS)
 Complete (AIS A) vs. incomplete (AIS B–D), no. (%) 41 (43) vs. 55 (57) 79 (39) vs. 125 (61) 0.511
 Motor complete (AIS A–B) vs. incomplete (AIS C–D), no. (%) 55 (57) vs. 41 (43) 115 (56) vs. 89 (44) 0.881
 AIS A, no. (%) 41 (43) 79 (39)  
 AIS B, no. (%) 14 (15) 36 (18)  
 AIS C, no. (%) 14 (15) 31 (15)  
 AIS D, no. (%) 27 (28) 58 (28)  
Lesion level
 At or above T6 vs. below T6, no. (%) 27 (28) vs. 69 (72) 139 (68) vs. 65 (32) < 0.001
 Cervical, no. (%) 10 (10) 88 (43)  
 Thoracic, no. (%) 72 (75) 100 (49)  
 Lumbar (L1–L2), no. (%) 14 (15) 16 (8)  
Start of UDIb
 Blood pressure    
  Mean (SD) systolic (mmHg) 133 (22) 124 (23) 0.001
  Mean (SD) diastolic (mmHg) 79 (15) 74 (12) 0.001
 Mean (SD) heart rate (bpm) 74 (15) 76 (16) 0.458
Cardiovascular change (Δ) during UDIb
 Blood pressure    
  Mean (SD) systolic (mmHg) 7 (8) 58 (29) < 0.001
  Mean (SD) diastolic (mmHg) 5 (6) 23 (13) < 0.001
 Mean (SD) heart rate (bpm) 1 (8) –11 (15) < 0.001
Presence of NDOb
 Yes vs. No, no. (%) 70 (73) vs. 26 (27) 179 (88) vs. 25 (12) 0.001
  1. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between patients with and without autonomic dysreflexia are highlighted in bold
  2. All values are presented as mean (SD) or number of patients (%)
  3. aSCI defined as “acute” upon 300 days since injury and “chronic” after 300 days according to the European Multicenter Study about Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI, www.emsci.org)
  4. bIndicating the worse of two same session UDIs
  5. AD autonomic dysreflexia, AIS American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale, NDO neurogenic detrusor overactivity, SCI spinal cord injury, SD standard deviation, UDI urodynamic investigation