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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by study group and gender

From: The Daily Mile makes primary school children more active, less sedentary and improves their fitness and body composition: a quasi-experimental pilot study

  Total Males Females Intervention vs control school (uncorrected) Intervention vs control school (corrected)
Age (years) 8.4 ± 2.0 (379) 8.3 ± 2.0 (192) 8.4 ± 1.9 (187) t = 3.18  
 Intervention school 8.1 ± 2.0 (252) 8.2 ± 2.0 (129) 8.0 ± 1.9 (123) SMD = 0.346  
 Control school 8.8 ± 1.8 (127) 8.6 ± 1.8 (63) 9.0 ± 1.8 (64) p = 0.002  
Daily MVPA (min) 55 ± 22 (118) 60 ± 20 (56) 50 ± 22 (62) t = 0.766 F = 1.982
 Intervention school 53 ± 22 (56) 53 ± 19 (24) 53 ± 24 (32) SMD = 0.141 SMD = 0.258
 Control school 56 ± 22 (62) 66 ± 19 (32) 47 ± 20 (30) p = 0.445 p = 0.162
Daily sedentary time (min) 345 ± 74 (118) 338 ± 80 (56) 352 ± 67 (62) t = 1.142 F = 7.543
 Intervention school 337 ± 77 (56) 327 ± 84 (24) 344 ± 71 (32) SMD = 0.210 SMD = 0.493
 Control school 352 ± 71 (62) 346 ± 78 (32) 360 ± 63 (30) p = 0.256 p = 0.007
Total shuttle distance (m) 670 ± 351 (357) 748 ± 399 (183) 589 ± 271 (174) t = 1.944 F = 0.294
 Intervention school 645 ± 351 (240) 719 ± 397 (124) 566 ± 276 (116) SMD = 0.219 SMD = 0.061
 Control school 722 ± 347 (117) 807 ± 400 (59) 635 ± 258 (58) p = 0.053 p = 0.588
Sum of skinfolds (mm) 35.1 ± 14.7 (327) 32.6 ± 14.9 (175) 38.1 ± 13.9 (152) t = 2.214 F = 2.117
 Intervention school 33.8 ± 12.7 (213) 31.7 ± 13.5 (115) 36.4 ± 11.2 (98) SMD = 0.257 SMD = 0.169
 Control school 37.6 ± 17.6 (114) 34.4 ± 17.3 (60) 41.1 ± 17.4 (54) p = 0.028 p = 0.147
% meeting physical activity guidelines 36.4% (118) 46.4% (56) 27.4% (62) χ2 = 4.29, p = 0.038
OR = 2.251 (1.037–4.884), p = 0.040
 Intervention school 26.8% (56) 25.0% (24) 28.1% (32)
 Control school 45.2% (62) 62.5% (32) 26.7% (30)
% overweight or obese 16.8% (369) 18.6% (188) 14.9% (181) χ2 = 0.01, p = 0.922
OR = 1.029 (0.578–1.833), p = 0.928
 Intervention school 16.7% (246) 19.0% (126) 14.2% (120)
 Control school 17.1% (123) 17.7% (62) 16.4% (61)
  1. Values in columns 2–4 are means ± SD (n value) or percentage (n value). Comparisons are by t test or χ2 and odds ratio. Corrected values are from ANOVA including correction for age, gender and age*gender. Shuttle distance is given to the nearest metre. Accelerometer minutes are given to the nearest minute. It was not possible to correct percentage values for age and gender. MVPA and sedentary time were also corrected for wear time. This table includes only participants with valid measurements both before and after the intervention
  2. MVPA moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity, OR odds ratio, SD standard deviation, SMD standardised mean difference