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Table 1 Characteristics of three high-risk opioid groups, patients with any opioid and the whole study sample

From: Healthcare costs and utilization associated with high-risk prescription opioid use: a retrospective cohort study

  Chronic users Concomitant users Opioid disorders Patients with any opioid use All patients
 Number of study subjects 2778 9200 1798 191,405 893,835
 Age 47.22 (10.60) 49.47 (9.64) 38.59 (12.90) 44.16 (12.64) 42.43 (13.09)
 Female 47.16% 65.76% 42.83% 55.14% 49.52%
Concurrent medical utilization in 2012
 Total cost 30,486 (57,670) 28,818 (61,406) 29,097 (50,380) 14,005 (34,238) 5456 (19,116)
 Medical cost 19,275 (53,908) 22,195 (57,710) 23,662 (49,056) 11,888 (32,241) 4321 (17,632)
 Pharmacy cost 11,211 (15,483) 6623 (15,638) 5435 (8119) 2117 (8120) 1135 (5357)
 Opioid medication cost 6169 (11,315) 1393 (5560) 2494 (4158) 169 (1622) 36 (754)
 1+ Hospitalization 15.95% 17.59% 29.14% 9.28% 2.98%
 1+ Emergency visit 29.84% 33.55% 40.71% 27.76% 12.36%
Prospective medical utilization in 2013
 Total cost 31,045 (69,822) 27,040 (58,601) 26,061 (61,520) 11,176 (37,069) 5972 (23,001)
 Medical cost 19,663 (65808) 20,008 (54,226) 20,758 (60,462) 8896 (34,402) 4739 (21,325)
 Pharmacy cost 11,382 (17,539) 7033 (18,156) 5302 (7968) 2280 (10,617) 1233 (6530)
  Opioid medication cost 6079 (13,170) 1459 (6506) 2416 (4606) 174 (1842) 40 (857)
 1+ Hospitalization 14.25% 15.03% 17.96% 6.10% 3.03%
 1+ Emergency visit 27.54% 31.07% 34.32% 18.61% 12.01%
Concurrent morbidity in 2012
 Count of ADGs 8.40 (4.34) 9.40 (4.22) 8.73 (4.36) 6.55 (3.78) 4.12 (3.49)
 Count of RxMGs 8.85 (4.53) 10.31 (4.13) 7.77 (4.51) 5.98 (3.41) 3.00 (3.09)
 Count of chronic conditions 4.00 (3.11) 4.43 (3.13) 4.11 (2.95) 2.26 (2.40) 1.31 (1.85)
 Count of active ingredients 13.10 (8.16) 15.84 (8.09) 11.65 (8.37) 8.42 (5.79) 4.03 (4.64)
 Concurrent risk score 4.67 (6.81) 4.95 (6.96) 5.16 (6.77) 2.49 (4.33) 1.14 (2.66)
Prospective morbidity in 2013
 Count of ADGs 8.25 (4.52) 9.13 (4.45) 7.73 (4.63) 5.86 (4.01) 4.18 (3.58)
 Count of RxMGs 8.76 (4.64) 10.02 (4.41) 7.15 (4.65) 5.07 (3.92) 3.12 (3.19)
 Count of chronic conditions 4.03 (3.26) 4.45 (3.26) 3.64 (3.11) 2.20 (2.48) 1.41 (1.96)
 Count of active ingredients 12.75 (8.29) 15.17 (8.38) 10.42 (8.12) 7.13 (6.34) 4.18 (4.81)
 Concurrent risk score 4.75 (7.42) 4.88 (7.10) 3.99 (6.22) 2.17 (4.33) 1.22 (2.95)
Overlap between three high-risk opioid groups in 2012
 Chronic users 13.33% 29.48% 1.45% 0.31%
 Concomitant users 44.13% 25.80% 4.81% 1.03%
 Opioid disorders 19.08% 5.04% 0.94% 0.27%
Magnitude of high-risk use in 2012 115.72 (85.23) / Days 150.72 (102.72) / Days 3.74 (3.29) / Months
Count of high-risk user membership in 2012
 Count of membership 1.63 (0.60) 1.18 (0.43) 1.55 (0.66) 0.07 (0.30) 0.02 (0.14)
 0 93.87% 98.62%
 1 43.05% 83.52% 54.39% 5.15% 1.17%
 2 50.68% 14.59% 35.93% 0.89% 0.19%
 3 6.26% 1.89% 9.68% 0.09% 0.02%