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Table 2 Impact of being high-risk opioid users and its magnitude on prospective costs

From: Healthcare costs and utilization associated with high-risk prescription opioid use: a retrospective cohort study

  Total cost Medical cost Drug cost
Crude cost ratio – binary indicator
 Chronic users 2.85**
(2.69–3.03)
2.25**
(2.11–2.40)
5.30**
(4.96–5.67)
 Concomitant users 2.61**
(2.52–2.69)
2.40**
(2.32–2.49)
3.45**
(3.32–3.58)
 Opioid disorder 2.36**
(2.19–2.54)
2.36**
(2.18–2.56)
2.36**
(2.17–2.56)
Adjusted cost ratio (with covariates and weighting) – binary indicator
 Chronic users 1.40**
(1.39–1.42)
1.03*
(1.02–1.04)
2.72**
(2.69–2.75)
 Concomitant users 1.13**
(1.12–1.14)
1.07**
(1.06–1.08)
1.41**
(1.40–1.43)
 Opioid disorder 1.28**
(1.26–1.29)
1.21**
(1.20–1.23)
1.63**
(1.62–1.65)
Crude cost ratio (one level/count increase in magnitude/membership: 0–3)
 Magnitude of chronic users 1.62**
(1.57–1.66)
1.44**
(1.39–1.49)
2.17**
(2.10–2.25)
 Magnitude of concomitant users 1.54**
(1.52–1.57)
1.48**
(1.45–1.50)
1.76**
(1.73–1.79)
 Magnitude of opioid disorder 1.48**
(1.43–1.54)
1.48**
(1.42–1.54)
1.48**
(1.42–1.54)
 Count of high-risk group membership 2.18**
(2.12–2.23)
2.02**
(1.96–2.07)
2.81**
(2.73–2.89)
Adjusted cost ratio (with covariates; one level/count increase in magnitude/membership: 0–3)
 Magnitude of chronic users 1.19**
(1.16–1.23)
1.01
(0.98–1.04)
1.79**
(1.74–1.84)
 Magnitude of concomitant users 1.04**
(1.03–1.06)
1.02
(1.00–1.03)
1.14**
(1.13–1.16)
 Magnitude of opioid disorder 1.19**
(1.14–1.23)
1.20**
(1.15–1.26)
1.27**
(1.22–1.32)
 Count of high-risk group membership 1.17**
(1.14–1.20)
1.06**
(1.03–1.10)
1.64**
(1.59–1.68)
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01