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Table 4 Impact of being high-risk opioid group and its severity on prospective costs

From: Healthcare costs and utilization associated with high-risk prescription opioid use: a retrospective cohort study

  Total cost Medical cost Drug cost
Crude cost change – binary indicator
 Chronic users 20,161**
(18,775–21,547)
10,925**
(9637–12,213)
9236**
(8841–9632)
 Concomitant users 16,666**
(15,893–17,439)
11673**
(10,954–12,392)
4993**
(4772–5214)
 Opioid disorder 15,026**
(13,306–16,746)
11,974**
(10,377–13,571)
3051**
(2559–3544)
Adjusted cost change (with covariates and weighting) – binary indicator
 Chronic users 6216**
(5678–6754)
281
(−123 to 795)
5935**
(5808–6063)
 Concomitant users 637*
(134–1140)
-1036**
(−1518 to −553)
1673**
(1546–1799)
 Opioid disorder 1558**
(1039–2076)
671**
(161–1181)
887**
(809–964)
Crude cost change (one level increase in severity) – severity level (0–3)
 Severity of chronic users 8845**
(8205–9486)
4523**
(3928–5119)
4322**
(4139–4505)
 Severity of concomitant users 7343**
(6987–7700)
4959**
(4628–5291)
2384**
(2282–2486)
 Severity of opioid disorder 6206**
(5390–7022)
4880**
(4123–5637)
1326**
(1093–1560)
Adjusted cost change (with covariates: one level increase in severity) – severity level (0–3)
 Severity of chronic users 3337**
(2695–3978)
263
(−344 to 869)
3074**
(2887–3261)
 Severity of concomitant users 1209**
(840–1579)
315
(−34 to 664)
895**
(787–1002)
 Severity of opioid disorder 1136*
(206–2067)
809
(−70 to 1688)
328*
(56–599)
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01