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Table 1 Participant characteristics by BMI category at the age of 60–64 years

From: Patterns of adiposity, vascular phenotypes and cognitive function in the 1946 British Birth Cohort

  N Entire sample Normal (30.5%) Overweight (42.5%) Obese (27.0%) p value trend
Male sex (%) 1249 46.3 37.0 54.7 43.8 0.046
Height (m) 1249 1.68 (0.1) 1.68 (0.1) 1.69 (0.1) 1.67 (0.1) 0.44
Weight (kg) 1249 78.4 (14.9) 65.3 (8.2) 78.1 (9.2) 94.3 (12.5) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 1249 27.6 (4.6) 23.0 (1.5) 27.2 (1.4) 33.6 (3.6) < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 1249 96.6 (12.6) 84.6 (8.2) 96.0 (7.6) 109.2 (9.8) < 0.001
Hip circumference (cm) 1249 105.8 (9.5) 97.7 (4.9) 104.5 (5.1) 115.7 (9.0) < 0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio 1249 0.91 (0.1) 0.87 (0.1) 0.92 (0.1) 0.95 (0.1) < 0.001
Heart rate (bpm) 1248 68.4 (11.3) 67.2 (11.4) 68.3 (10.6) 69.8 (12.1) 0.009
SBP (mmHg) 1248 134.8 (17.9) 129.3 (16.7) 136.6 (18.1) 138 (17.9) < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 1248 77.2 (9.7) 74.5 (9.4) 78.2 (9.4) 78.7 (10.1) < 0.001
Education (% above A-level) 909 61.3 61.9 65 54.6 0.14
Smoking (% current smokers) 1171 34.9 37.7 33.7 34.3 0.34
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 1186 5.69 (1.2) 5.91 (1.1) 5.7 (1.2) 5.4 (1.3) < 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1156 3.52 (1.0) 3.66 (0.9) 3.55 (1.0) 3.3 (1.1) 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1186 1.62 (0.41) 1.81 (0.4) 1.59 (0.4) 1.43 (0.3) < 0.001
Triglyceridesa (mmol/L) 1162 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.3 (1.0–1.9) < 0.001
HbA1ca (%) 1157 5.8 (5.5–6) 5.7 (5.5–5.9) 5.7 (5.5–6.0) 5.9 (5.6–6.2) < 0.001
Adiponectina (μg/mL) 1183 12.9 (7.6–19.5) 16.6 (10.9–25.1) 12.1 (7.0–17.8) 10.2 (6.3–16.4) < 0.001
Leptina (ng/mL) 1183 12.1 (6.6–23.6) 7.8 (4.1–13.7) 11.6 (6.4–19.1) 26.1 (14.1–43.2) < 0.001
Levels of physical activity (in the last 4 weeks)       
• Not physical active
• Moderate
• Intense
1223 703 (58.15)
189 (15.63)
317 (26.22)
205 (54.81)
61 (16.31)
108 (28.88)
297 (58.01)
80 (15.63)
135 (26.37)
201 (62.23)
48 (14.86)
74 (22.91)
0.375
PWV (m/s) 1249 8.2 (1.51) 7.95 (1.58) 8.27 (1.5) 8.37 (1.42) < 0.001
cIMT (mm) 900 0.69 (0.12) 0.67 (0.12) 0.69 (0.13) 0.71 (0.11) <0.001
VMT (number of words) 1227 24.7 (6.1) 26.0 (6.0) 24.5 (6.2) 23.6 (5.7) < 0.001
LSSTa (targets) 1249 282 (231–307) 287 (231–329) 239 (231–329) 263 (174–288) 0.009
S-RT (s) 1234 281 (63.5) 279 (64.5) 278 (60.2) 289 (67.2) 0.038
C-RT (s) 1230 612 (76.5) 607 (77.4) 608 (72.9) 622 (80.6) 0.012
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, N (%) or amedian (IQR). Comparisons between normal weight, overweight and obese groups were performed by test for trend using linear regression
  2. Numbers in italic indicate statistical significance
  3. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, cIMT common carotid artery intima-media thickness, PWV pulse wave velocity, VMT verbal memory test, LSST letter search speed test, C-RT choice reaction time test, S-RT simple reaction time test