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Table 2 An overview of cohort studies or randomized controlled trials regarding outcomes of PVT in cirrhotic patients who did not receive any antithrombotic treatment

From: Transient portal vein thrombosis in liver cirrhosis

First author, year (region) Type of study Enrollment period Target population Follow-up duration Degree of PVT Location of PVT No. Pts Severity of liver cirrhosis Proportion of HCC No. spontaneous recanalization or improvement No. thrombus progression
Hidaka, 2018 [26] (Japan) Multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, full-text Oct 2014 – Mar 2016 LC with PVT 21 ± 3 days > 50% of the cross-sectional lumen of the MPV, portal vein branches, SMV, or SV MPV (n = 20)
Portal vein branch (n = 11)
SV (n = 0)
SMV (n = 5)
36 Child-Pugh A/B/C:
6/24/6
6 (16.7%) 7 (19.4%) 7 (19.4%)
Chen, 2016 [27] (China) Single-center, retrospective, controlled,
full-text
Jan 2002 – Jun 2014 LC with PVT Mean ± SD:
25.9 ± 23 months
(for 36 patients)
MPV (0–25%/26–50%/51–75%/76–100%): 8/2/6/20
LPV (0–50%/51–100%): 12/24
RPV (0–50%/51–100%): 11/25
SV (splenectomy/0–50%/51–100%): 20/11/5
SMV (0–50%/51–100%): 17/19
16 Child-Pugh A/B/C:
8/21/2
Mean MELD score: 8.9 ± 3.01
(for 36 patients)
0 (0%) 4 (25%) 6 (37.5%)
Nery,a 2015 [6] (France) Multi-center, prospective, single-arm, full-text Jun 2000 – Mar 2006 Child-Pugh A and B LC with de novo PVT Mean ± SD:
65.2 ± 39.6 months
Non-occlusive at the first diagnosis of PVT (n = 101);
occlusive at the first diagnosis of PVT (n = 17)
NA 101b All patients had Child-Pugh A or B 0 (0%) (for baseline) 70 (70%)
89c (89%)
14 (13.8%)
Chung, 2014 [28] (Korea) Single-center, retrospective, matched, controlled, full-text 2003 – 2014 LC with non-malignant partial PVT NA Partial (n = 14) MPV (n = 9)
RPV (n = 7)
LPV (n = 4)
SMV (n = 2)
14 Child-Pugh A/B/C:
7/6/1
8 (57.1%) 5 (36%) 3 (21.4%)
Girleanu, 2014 [7] (Romania) Single-center, prospective,
single-arm,
full-text
Jan 2011 – Oct 2013 LC with non-malignant partial PVT Mean ± SD (range):
20.22 ± 8.61
(4–31) months
Partial PV (n = 18)
PV + SMV (n = 11)
PV + SMV + SV (n = 1)
22 Child-Pugh A/B/C:
7/9/6
Mean MELD score:
12.73 ± 4.34
0 (0%) 5 (22.73%) 6 (27.27%)
Risso, 2014 [29] (Italy) Single-center,
retrospective,
controlled,
abstract
2005 – 2011 LC with pre-LT non-neoplastic PVT NA NA NA 20 NA NA 8 (40%) NA
John, 2013 [8] (USA) Single-center, prospective,
single-arm,
full-text
Jul 2004 – Jun 2009 LC awaiting LT and PVT > 6 months in all patients Partial (n = 38);
occlusive (n = 32)
MPV, not SMV 70 Mean MELD score:
14.4 ± 5.0 (for 47 pts. with baseline PVT);
15.3 ± 6.7 (for 23 pts. with new PVT)
0 (0%) 22 (31.4%) 3 (4.3%)
Maruyama, 2013 [9] (Japan) Single-center, retrospective,
single-arm,
full-text
Jan 1998 – May 2009 LC with de novo PVT Mean ± SD (range):
65.2 ± 39.6 (0.87–136.4) months
Partial (n = 31);
occlusive (n = 11)
Intrahepatic PV (n = 8)
MPV (n = 15)
SV (n = 6)
MPV + intrahepatic PV (n = 9)
MPV + SV (n = 2)
MPV + SV + intrahepatic PV (n = 2)
42 Child-Pugh A/B/C:
14/22/6
Median MELD score: 10.6
0 (0%) 20 (47.6%) 3 (7.2%)
Caracciolo, 2013 [30] (Italy) Single-center, retrospective, matched, controlled, abstract NA LC with partial PVT 6–12 months Occlusion< 50% (n = 14) NA 14 All patients had Child-Pugh A or B (no patient had Child-Pugh C) 0 (0%) 8 (57.6%) NA
Luca, 2012 [10] (Italy) Single-center, retrospective, single-arm, full-text Jan 2004 – Dec 2009 LC with non-malignant, extrahepatic, partial PVT Mean: 27 months;
3–6 months (n = 8);
6–12 months (n = 8);
12–24 months (n = 9);
> 24 months (n = 19)
Occlusion:
< 25% (n = 8)
25–50% (n = 11)
50–75% (n = 14)
75–90% (n = 9)
MPV (n = 15)
MPV + SMV (n = 18)
MPV + SMV + SV (n = 9)
42 Mean Child-Pugh score: 8.1 ± 1.9
Mean MELD score:
12.1 ± 2.9
0 (0%) 19 (45%) 20 (48%)
Senzolo, 2012 [31] (UK) Single-center, prospective, controlled, full-text Jan 2007 – Jan 2008 LC with PVT Mean:
22.53 months
CTPV (n = 3)
complete (n = 4)
partial (n = 14)
Intrahepatic PV (n = 5)
MPV (n = 21)
SMV (n = 4)
SV (n = 1)
21 Child-Pugh A/B/C:
5/9/7
Mean MELD score:
13.7 ± 3.6
0 (0%) 1 (5%) 15 (71.4%)
Garcovich, 2011 [32] (Italy) Single-center, retrospective, matched, controlled, abstract NA LC with PVT NA Occlusion> 75% (n = 3) NA 15 All patients had Child-Pugh A or B (no patient had Child-Pugh C) 0 (0%) 5 (33%) NA
Francoz, 2005 [33] (France) Single-center, retrospective, controlled, full-text Jan 1996 – Dec 2001 LC awaiting LT and partial PVT NA Partial (n = 10) MPV (n = 6)
RPV (n = 4)
LPV (n = 3)
10 Child-Pugh A/B/C:
2/6/2
Mean MELD score: 11.8 ± 6.2
2/38 (5.3%)
(for 38 patients with SVT)
0 (0%) 6 (60%)
De Santis 2001 [34] (Italy) Single-center, retrospective, single-arm, abstract Jan 1996 – Dec 1999 LC with PVT and without HCC NA NA NA 21 NA 0 (0%) 7 (33%) NA
  1. Abbreviations: CT computed tomography, CTPV cavernous transformation of the portal vein, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, LC liver cirrhosis, LPV left portal vein, LT liver transplantation, MELD Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, MPV main portal vein, NA not available, PV portal vein, PVT portal vein thrombosis, RPV right portal vein, SD standard deviation, SMV superior mesenteric vein, SV splenic vein, SVT splanchnic vein thrombosis
  2. aSix patients with PVT received anticoagulation
  3. bChange of PVT in 101 patients with non-occlusive PVT, rather than those with occlusive PVT, was reported in the text
  4. cNumber of patients after adding 19 patients with PVT in whom thrombus spontaneously disappeared and then reappeared