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Table 2 Risk and prognostic factors, and relative risks for morbidity and mortality, for measles, diarrhea, and pneumonia

From: Estimating the distribution of morbidity and mortality of childhood diarrhea, measles, and pneumonia by wealth group in low- and middle-income countries

Disease-vaccine pair Risk factors of morbidity
(relative risk magnitude is indicated in parentheses)
Prognostic factors of mortality
(relative risk magnitude is indicated in parentheses)
Sources
Measles – Measles vaccine • Wasting: z-score < –3 SD (38.0, 95% CI 5.1–200.7); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (8.5, 95% CI 1.3–42.9)
• Maternal education (3.2)a
• Having no other children vaccinated at home (3.0)a
• Underweight: z-score < –3 SD (5.7, 95% CI 1.8–12.4); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1)
• Stunting: z-score < –3 SD (2.5, 95% CI 1.1–6.6); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.5, 95% CI 1.0–3.3)
• Vitamin A deficiency (2.4, 95% CI 1.6–3.5)
• Wasting: z-score < –3 SD (38.0, 95% CI 5.1–200.7); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (8.5, 95% CI 1.3–42.9)
• Underweight: z-score < –3 SD (5.7, 95% CI 1.8–12.4); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1)
• Stunting: z-score < –3 SD (2.5, 95% CI 1.1–6.6); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.5, 95% CI 1.0–3.3)
• Vitamin A deficiency (2.4, 95% CI 1.6–3.5)
• More than one child (1.8)a
• Age at infection (NA)a
• Secondary (versus primary) exposure (NA)a
• Infection with complication (NA)a
• Overcrowding (NA)a
• Intensity of exposure and patterns of disease transmission (NA)a
[14, 27, 34, 35]
Pneumonia – Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine • Wasting: z-score < –3 SD (116.7, 95% CI 25.2–179.3); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (25.6, 95% CI 6.1–39.7)
• Non-exclusive breastfeeding: None (4.5, 95% CI 1.0–18.3); Partial (5.4, 95% CI 1.0–20.9); Predominant (1.8, 95% CI 1.4–2.3)
• Underweight: z-score < –3 SD (2.1, 95% CI 1.8–2.7); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4)
• Stunting: z-score < –3 SD (1.9); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.2)b
• Zinc deficiency (1.8)a
• Vitamin A deficiency (1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.0)
• Low birth weight (< 2500 g) (1.4)
• Exposed to household air pollution (1.4)a
• Crowding (more than five people per household) (1.4)a
• Secondhand smoke (1.2)a
• Parental literacy level (NA)a
• Wasting: z-score < –3 SD (116.7, 95% CI 25.2–179.3); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (25.6, 95% CI 6.1–39.7)
• Non-exclusive breastfeeding: None (51.4, 95% CI 2.1–325.9); Partial (2.8, 95% CI 1.3–5.2); Predominant (1.9, 95% CI 1.0–4.1)
• Zinc deficiency (1.7)a
• Underweight: z-score < –3 SD (2.1, 95% CI 1.8–2.7); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4)
• Stunting: z-score < –3 SD (1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.6); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.7)
• Vitamin A deficiency (1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.0)
• Secondhand smoke (1.2)a
[14, 27, 28, 36, 37]
Diarrhea – Rotavirus vaccine • Wasting: z-score < –3 SD (105.8, 95% CI 42.2–158.0); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (23.3, 95% CI 8.9–35.9)
• Unsafe water source (11.2)a
• Unsafe sanitation (3.2, 95% CI 2.8–3.7)
• Mothers handwashing not practiced at critical time (2.2)a
• Underweight: z-score < –3 SD (2.3, 95% CI 2.1–2.8); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.5)
• Non-exclusive breastfeeding: None (2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.2); Partial (1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.3); Predominant (1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.7)
• Stunting: z-score < –3 SD (1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.7); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.5)
• Zinc deficiency (1.9)a
• No hand washing with soap (1.7)c
• Maternal literacy (1.7)a
• Having more than two children aged under five years (1.7)a
• Wasting: z-score < –3 SD (105.8, 95% CI 42.2–158.0); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (23.3, 95% CI 8.9–35.9)
• Unsafe water source (11.2)a
• Non-exclusive breastfeeding: None (9.7, 95% CI 2.4–28.1); Partial (3.9, 95% CI 1.5–8.3); Predominant (2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.6)
• Unsafe sanitation (3.2, 95% CI 2.8–3.7)
• Underweight: z-score < –3 SD (2.3, 95% CI 2.1–2.8); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.5)
• Zinc deficiency (2.0)a
• Stunting: z-score < –3 SD (1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.7); –2 SD < z-score < –3 SD (1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.5)
• No handwashing with soap (1.7)c
• Vitamin A deficiency (1.5)b
[14, 27, 36, 38, 39]
  1. aRisk factors not included in the analysis due to Demographic and Health Survey data unavailable by wealth quintile
  2. bRisk factors not included in the analysis due to lower relative risk
  3. cRisk factors not included in the analysis due to poor data quality and/or poor variable definition
  4. CI confidence interval, NA not available, SD standard deviation