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Table 3 Long-term effect of exercise on fatigue and physical activity among breast cancer patients only

From: Four-year effects of exercise on fatigue and physical activity in patients with cancer

  Baseline Baseline to 4 years post-intervention  
Within-group differences Between-group differences
Mean SD Mean [95% CI] Mean [95% CI] Effect size
Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI)
 General fatigue I 9.28 6.08 0.13 [−1.11, 1.38] −0.26 [− 1.65, 1.12] 0.04
UC 10.01 6.11 −0.48 [−1.78, 0.82] Reference  
 Physical fatigue I 9.05 6.32 −0.53 [−1.83, 0.76] −1.05 [−2.53, 0.43] 0.17
UC 10.01 6.35 −0.33 [−1.68, 1.02] Reference  
 Mental fatigue I 9.32 6.64 0.05 [−1.24, 1.33] −0.09 [− 1.59, 1.41] 0.01
UC 9.77 6.68 −0.28 [−1.62, 1.06] Reference  
 Reduced activity I 7.04 5.07 −0.21 [−1.21, 0.79] 0.17 [−1.02, 1.36] 0.03
UC 7.62 5.09 −0.95 [−1.98, 0.09] Reference  
 Reduced motivation I 7.92 6.42 0.51 [−0.73, 1.74] −0.20 [−1.27, 0.87] 0.03
UC 8.42 6.71 0.39 [−0.91, 1.70] Reference  
Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH)
 Total physical activity I UC 640.55 750.38 794.85 792.05 36.76 [− 125.46, 198.98] − 167.21 [− 336.75, 2.32] 117.70 [−40.61, 276.02] Reference 0.15
 Sport and leisure physical activity I UC 211.59 217.57 332.60 332.04 93.91 [32.33, 155.49]* 56.71 [−8.03, 121.45] 33.66 [−40.26, 107.57] Reference 0.10
  1. I exercise intervention group, UC usual care group, SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval
  2. *Statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  3. Between-group effects were assessed using mixed models including the measurements obtained at 18 and 36 weeks and 4 years, adjusted for tumor receptor status and the value of the outcome variable at baseline as well as for stratification factors: age, radiotherapy, hospital, and tissue expander. Within-group effects were assessed using mixed models including the measurements obtained at baseline, 18 and 36 weeks, and 4 years, adjusted for tumor receptor status as well as for stratification factors: age, radiotherapy, hospital, and tissue expander
  4. Baseline results and within-group differences were based on participants having baseline measurements. Between-group differences were based on participants having measurements at 18 weeks, 36 weeks, or 4 years