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Table 5 Outcomes of neonates born after transferring embryo with or without blastomere loss, according to multiplicity

From: Outcomes of neonates born following transfers of frozen-thawed cleavage-stage embryos with blastomere loss: a prospective, multicenter, cohort study

  Singleton delivery Multiple deliveries All deliveries
  Intact embryo group (n = 2187) Blastomere loss group (n = 332) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)a Intact embryo group (n = 1559) Blastomere loss group (n = 151) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)a Intact embryo group (n = 3746) Blastomere loss group (n = 483) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)a
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Gestational age, Mean (SD), years 38.13 (1.76) 38.33 (1.83)    35.78 (2.04) 36.09 (2.23)    37.14 (2.22) 37.63 (2.22)   
Sex (Female) 1040 (47.6) 172 (51.8) 1.19 (0.94–1.49) 1.21 (0.95–1.55) 767 (49.2) 77 (51.0) 1.07 (0.77–1.50) 1.02 (0.72–1.44) 1807 (48.2) 249 (51.6) 1.14 (0.94–1.38) 1.13 (0.93–1.38)
Birthweight             
  < 2500 g 115 (5.3) 20 (6.0) 1.16 (0.71–1.90) 1.42 (0.76–2.66) 757 (48.4) 81 (53.6) 1.23 (0.88–1.72) 1.07 (0.71–1.61) 870 (23.2) 101 (20.9) 0.89 (0.70–1.12) 0.87 (0.64–1.19)
  > 4000 g 219 (10.0) 35 (10.5) 1.07 (0.73–1.56) 1.08 (0.72–1.62) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) NA NA 220 (5.9) 35 (7.3) 1.22 (0.84–1.77) 1.28 (0.86–1.92)
Birthweight for gestational age
 SGA 65 (3.0) 16 (4.8) 1.61 (0.92–2.83) 1.84 (0.99–3.37) 285 (18.3) 41 (27.2) 1.64 (1.12–2.41) 1.50 (1.00–2.25) 350 (9.3) 57 (10.6) 1.29 (0.96–1.75) 1.14 (0.83–1.56)
 LGA 376 (17.2) 49 (14.8) 0.85 (0.62–1.18) 0.80 (0.57–1.13) 42 (2.7) 2 (1.3) 0.54 (0.13–2.28) 0.44 (0.10–1.90) 418 (11.2) 51 (11.8) 0.97 (0.71–1.32) 0.91 (0.66–1.26)
Apgar ≤ 7 (1 min) 30 (1.4) 7 (2.1) 1.55 (0.68–3.56) 2.52 (0.99–6.39) 43 (2.8) 5 (3.3) 1.21 (0.47–3.10) 1.80 (0.63–5.15) 73 (2.0) 12 (2.5) 1.28 (0.69–2.38) 1.39 (0.73–2.64)
Apgar ≤ 7 (5 min) 12 (0.6) 3 (0.9) 1.65 (0.46–5.88) 4.22 (0.97–18.44) 19 (1.2) 2 (1.3) 1.09 (0.25–4.73) 1.55 (0.29–8.26) 31 (0.8) 5 (1.0) 1.25 (0.48–3.24) 2.76 (0.94–8.13)
Neonatal respiratory distress
 TTN 13 (0.6) 6 (1.8) 3.07 (1.16–8.13) 6.27 (1.86–21.14) 33 (2.1) 8 (5.3) 2.60 (1.17–5.74) 5.21 (1.90–14.27) 46 (1.2) 14 (2.9) 2.38 (1.30–4.36) 5.21 (2.42–11.22)
 RDS 41 (1.9) 5 (1.5) 0.82 (0.32–2.08) 1.11 (0.38–3.29) 134 (8.6) 13 (8.6) 1.04 (0.57–1.89) 0.77 (0.37–1.60) 181 (4.7) 18 (3.7) 0.80 (0.49–1.32) 0.91 (0.49–1.67)
Congenital anomalyb 6 (0.3) 2 (0.6) 2.20 (0.44–10.96) 1.98 (0.35–11.17) 14 (0.9) 1 (0.7) 0.73 (0.10–5.65) 0.57 (0.06–5.17) 20 (0.5) 3 (0.6) 1.16 (0.34–3.94) 1.18 (0.32–4.31)
Neonatal mortality c 2 (0.1) 1 (0.3) 3.30 (0.30–36.50) NA 6 (0.4) 0 (0.0) NA NA 8 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 0.97 (0.12–7.78) 1.36 (0.10–11.00)
  1. FET frozen-thawed embryo transfer, AGA appropriate for gestational age, SGA small for gestational age, LGA large for gestational age, TTN transient tachypnea of the newborn, RDS respiratory distress syndrome, HRT hormone replacement therapy, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, aOR adjusted odds ratio, NA not accessible
  2. aaOR was adjusted for gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorder, paternal smoking during pregnancy, number of previous abortion, primary infertility, preterm delivery, mode of delivery, and type of embryo cryopreservation
  3. bOf the 8 singletons who had congenital anomaly, 2 in the intact embryo group had congenital heart diseases, 2 in the intact embryo group had congenital preauricular fistula, and another 2 in the intact embryo group had congenital anal atresia and hypospadias. Two singletons in the blastomere loss group had hypospadias and cheilopalatognathus. Of the 14 multiples neonates, 7 in the intact embryo group had congenital heart diseases, 2 in the intact embryo group had congenital anal atresia, 2 in the intact embryo group had multiple anomalies, the rest in the intact embryo group had spina bifida, polydactyly, and tracheobronchial malacia, respectively. One multiples neonate in the blastomere loss group had congenital heart disease
  4. cOf the 3 neonatal deaths of singletons, 2 in the intact embryo group died due to respiratory distress and cerebral palsy, 1 in the blastomere loss group died due to neonatal encephalopathy. Of the 6 neonatal deaths of multiples neonates in the intact embryo group, 3 neonates died due to neonatal encephalopathy, another 3 each died due to tetralogy of Fallot, congenital anal atresia, and cerebral palsy