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Table 5 Prospective associations between adherence to the diet scores and the incidence of major chronic diseases

From: Nordic diet, Mediterranean diet, and the risk of chronic diseases: the EPIC-Potsdam study

  Low adherence Moderate adherence High
adherence
p for trend per 1 SD per 1 unit
(Ref.) HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
DIABETES
 Nordic diet
  Cases, n/person-year 413/80,081 494/85,511 469/80,627      
  Model 1 1.00 1.04 0.91–1.18 1.00 0.87–1.14 1.000 1.00 0.94–1.05 1.00 0.98–1.02
  Model 2 1.00 1.02 0.89–1.17 1.01 0.87–1.18 0.827 1.00 0.94–1.07 1.00 0.98–1.02
 tMDS
  Cases, n/person-year 445/73,939 578/101,702 353/70,578      
  Model 1 1.00 0.87 0.77–0.99 0.75 0.65–0.87 < 0.001 0.89 0.84–0.94 0.96 0.94–0.98
  Model 2 1.00 0.92 0.81–1.04 0.84 0.73–0.97 0.019 0.93 0.88–0.98 0.97 0.95–0.99
 MedPyr
  Cases, n/person-year 549/81,156 448/82,176 379/82,887      
  Model 1 1.00 0.84 0.74–0.96 0.75 0.65–0.84 < 0.001 0.88 0.84–0.93 0.90 0.87–0.94
  Model 2 1.00 0.90 0.79–1.02 0.80 0.70–0.92 0.001 0.92 0.87–0.97 0.93 0.89–0.97
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
 Nordic diet
  Cases, n/person-year 94/81,983 123/87,572 95/82,706      
  Model 1 1.00 1.11 0.85–1.45 0.85 0.64–1.14 0.272 0.91 0.81–1.02 0.97 0.94–1.01
  Model 2 1.00 1.13 0.85–1.49 0.88 0.64–1.20 0.440 0.91 0.80–1.04 0.97 0.93–1.01
 tMDS
  Cases, n/person-year 91/75,908 137/104,226 84/72,128      
  Model 1 1.00 0.99 0.76–1.29 0.84 0.62–1.13 0.283 0.91 0.81–1.02 0.97 0.93–1.01
  Model 2 1.00 1.06 0.81–1.39 0.95 0.70–1.28 0.816 0.95 0.85–1.07 0.98 0.94–1.03
 MedPyr
  Cases, n/person-year 122/83,499 105/84,148 85/84,614      
  Model 1 1.00 0.89 0.69–1.16 0.78 0.59–1.03 0.073 0.89 0.80–1.00 0.91 0.83–1.00
  Model 2 1.00 0.91 0.70–1.19 0.84 0.63–1.11 0.224 0.92 0.82–1.04 0.94 0.85–1.03
STROKE
 Nordic diet
  Cases, n/person-year 108/81,956 100/87,741 113/82,760      
  Model 1 1.00 0.78 0.59–1.02 0.87 0.66–1.13 0.297 0.92 0.82–1.03 0.97 0.94–1.01
  Model 2 1.00 0.82 0.62–1.09 0.97 0.72–1.31 0.819 0.97 0.85–1.10 0.99 0.95–1.03
 tMDS
  Cases, n/person-year 91/75,836 144/104,416 86/72,204      
  Model 1 1.00 1.06 0.82–1.38 0.91 0.68–1.22 0.498 0.99 0.88–1.11 1.00 0.96–1.04
  Model 2 1.00 1.10 0.85–1.44 0.98 0.72–1.32 0.832 1.02 0.91–1.14 1.01 0.96–1.05
 MedPyr
  Cases, n/person-year 124/83,599 93/84,291 104/84,566      
  Model 1 1.00 0.80 0.61–1.04 0.96 0.74–1.25 0.701 0.97 0.87–1.09 0.98 0.90–1.07
  Model 2 1.00 0.83 0.63–1.09 1.03 0.79–1.35 0.870 1.01 0.90–1.13 1.01 0.92–1.10
CANCER
 Nordic diet
  Cases, n/person-year 503/79,442 559/85,025 556/79,872      
  Model 1 1.00 0.93 0.83–1.05 0.94 0.83–1.06 0.243 0.97 0.92–1.01 0.99 0.97–1.00
  Model 2 1.00 0.95 0.84–1.08 0.99 0.87–1.14 0.774 0.99 0.93–1.05 1.00 0.98–1.01
 tMDS
  Cases, n/person-year 482/73,638 691/100,771 445/769,931      
  Model 1 1.00 0.98 0.87–1.10 0.91 0.80–1.03 0.119 0.97 0.92–1.02 0.99 0.97–1.01
  Model 2 1.00 1.00 0.89–1.12 0.95 0.83–1.08 0.345 0.99 0.94–1.04 0.99 0.98–1.01
 MedPyr diet
  Cases, n/person-year 571/80,743 556/81,584 491/82,013      
  Model 1 1.00 1.03 0.92–1.16 0.96 0.85–1.09 0.636 0.99 0.94–1.04 0.99 0.95–1.03
  Model 2 1.00 1.04 0.93–1.17 1.00 0.88–1.13 0.979 1.01 0.96–1.06 1.00 0.96–1.05
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + smoking status, education, total energy (kcal/day), vitamin supplementation, body mass index (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm), cycling, sports, prevalent hypertension (not in the analyses on cancer), alcohol intake (7 categories) (only for the Nordic diet analysis)
  3. SD standard deviation, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  4. tMDS Mediterranean diet score based on that established by Trichopoulou et al. [30], MedPyr Mediterranean diet score based on the Mediterranean Pyramid