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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to HBsAg status at baseline for 469,459 participants

From: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection and risk of chronic kidney disease: a population-based prospective cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults

  HBsAg negative HBsAg positive p value
Number of participants 454,588 14,871  
Age (years) 51.1 48.6 <0.001
Men (%) 40.8 46.9 <0.001
Rural area (%) 56.7 48.7 <0.001
Married (%) 90.9 90.3 0.024
Middle school and higher (%) 49.5 47.4 <0.001
Daily smoker (%)
 Men 67.7 68.4 0.231
 Women 2.6 2.9 0.104
Daily drinker (%)
 Men 20.9 20.2 0.165
 Women 0.9 1.1 0.046
Physical activity (MET-h/day) 21.5 21.4 0.650
Weekly consumption*
 Red meat (day) 3.7 3.7 0.002
 Fresh vegetables (day) 6.8 6.8 0.738
 Fresh fruit (day) 2.5 2.5 0.014
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.6 23.5 <0.001
Postmenopausal (%) 50.7 50.9 0.521
Prevalent diabetes (%) 5.4 5.7 0.075
Prevalent hypertension (%) 33.9 32.3 < 0.001
Prevalent rheumatic arthritis (%) 1.9 1.8 0.448
Prevalent chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis (%) 0.8 10.8 < 0.001
 Medical history (years) 17.2 12.6 < 0.001
 Under treatment at baseline (%) 10.4 19.1 < 0.001
  1. All variables were adjusted for age, sex, and survey sites, as appropriate
  2. HBsAg hepatitis virus B surface antigen, MET metabolic equivalent of task
  3. *Weekly consumption of red meat, fresh vegetables, and fresh fruit was calculated by assigning participants to the midpoint of their consumption category
  4. Variables obtained or partly obtained by physical measurements. Other variables were obtained through the questionnaire
  5. Among participants with prevalent chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis at baseline
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