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Table 4 HRs (95% CIs) for chronic kidney disease in relation to HBsAg status by potential baseline risk factors among 469,459 participants

From: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection and risk of chronic kidney disease: a population-based prospective cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults

Variable of interest HBsAg Number of cases Cases/PY
(1000)
Multiplicative interaction   Additive interaction
Stratum-specific HR (95% CI) p Int-M * HR (95% CI) p Int-A RERI Attributable proportion, %
HBV infection Variable of interest Additive interaction
Daily smoking
 No Negative 3166 1.09 1.00 0.030 1.00 0.030 0.56
(0.05, 1.07)
25.5
(−5.0, 56.1)
8.2
(− 16.3, 32.6)
66.3
(32.4, 100.3)
 No Positive 108 1.20 1.20 (0.99, 1.45)   1.22 (1.00, 1.47)
 Yes Negative 1215 1.03 1.00   1.07 (0.97, 1.18)
 Yes Positive 66 1.59 1.83 (1.42, 2.34)   1.85 (1.44, 2.38)
Physical inactivity
 No Negative 2721 0.99 1.00 0.003 1.00 0.004 0.72 (0.23, 1.21) 15.9
(−10.6, 42.3)
5.0
(−18.4, 28.4)
79.1
(50.5, 107.7)
 No Positive 97 1.07 1.15 (0.94, 1.41)   1.14 (0.93, 1.40)
 Yes Negative 1660 1.24 1.00   1.05 (0.97, 1.12)
 Yes Positive 77 1.90 1.80 (1.43, 2.27)   1.91 (1.52, 2.40)
Prevalent diabetes
 No Negative 3519 0.91 1.00 0.068 1.00 0.012 2.45
(0.53, 4.38)
5.4
(0.7, 10.2)
46.6 (25.9, 67.2) 48.0 (27.7, 68.3)
 No Positive 134 1.07 1.28 (1.07, 1.52)   1.28 (1.08, 1.52)
 Yes Negative 862 4.11 1.00   3.38 (3.13, 3.66)
 Yes Positive 40 6.54 1.77 (1.28, 2.44)   6.11 (4.47, 8.36)
  1. CI confidence interval, HBsAg hepatitis virus B surface antigen, HR hazard ratio, PY person-year, RERI relative excess risk due to interaction
  2. *p value for multiplicative interaction
  3. p value for additive interaction
  4. Defined as <13.4 or <12.4 MET-h/day for men or women respectively
  5. Multivariable model was adjusted for: age (years); sex (men or women, for whole cohort); level of education (no formal school, primary school, middle school, high school, college, or university or higher); marital status (married, widowed, divorced or separated, or never married); alcohol consumption (less than weekly drinker, weekly drinker, daily drinker with an intake of <15, 15–29, 30–59, or ≥60 g/day); intake frequencies of red meat, fresh fruit, and fresh vegetables (daily, 4–6 days/week, 1–3 days/week, monthly, rarely, or never); body mass index (kg/m2); menopausal status (premenopausal, perimenopausal, or postmenopausal; for women only); and prevalent hypertension at baseline (presence or absence). The variables of smoking status (nonsmoker, former smoker having quit smoking ≥5 or <5 years previously, or current daily smoker smoking <15, 15–24, or ≥25 cigarettes or equivalents per day), physical activity (MET-h/day), and prevalent diabetes were adjusted for in the multivariable model except for their own subgroup analysis
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