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Table 1 Impact of alignment between presentation format during e-seminars and formative exams on student performance

From: How can we teach medical students to choose wisely? A randomised controlled cross-over study of video- versus text-based case scenarios

Presentation format Percent scores achieved in the formative exams
E-seminars Formative exam Exit exam Retention test
Text Text 77.4 ± 21.0a 71.6 ± 20.4d,e
Text Video 67.3 ± 22.2a,b 61.3 ± 25.4d,f
Video Text 79.0 ± 20.2b,c 72.8 ± 23.1f,g
Video Video 73.4 ± 22.3c 65.6 ± 22.5e,g
  1. The Friedman test was significant for both the exit exam and the retention test. Different pairs of superscript letters indicate a significant difference between two groups in Wilcoxon signed-rank tests after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons