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Table 3 Cost-utility analysis for the different vaccination policies, by model and by time horizon

From: The impact of demographic changes, exogenous boosting and new vaccination policies on varicella and herpes zoster in Italy: a modelling and cost-effectiveness study

Model TI Model PI
Policy Total costa QALY lossb ICERc NMBkd NMBve Policy Total costa QALY lossb ICERc NMBkd NMBve
Time horizon = 25 years
 No vacc. 1812 455 No vacc. 2023 538
 VR 1831 446 2219 110 324 VR 2066 537 WD −37 −28
 HZR 2540 413 WD −94 963 HZR 2722 481 WD 143 1548
 VRHZR 2555 402 WD 50 1371 VRHZR 2757 477 WD 166 1667
 HZR + CU 2823 380 WD 109 1975 HZR + CU 2995 444 WD 436 2782
 VRHZR + CU 2836 369 12,989 265 2414 VRHZR + CU 3028 439 10,175 476 2944
Time horizon = 50 years
 No vacc. 2668 691 No vacc. 3145 885
 VR 2643 680 Cost-saving 190 466 VR 3240 924 SD −679 −1654
 VRHZR 3563 576 WD 820 3679 HZR 3989 745 6031 1255 4754
 HZR 3601 593 SD 531 2970 VRHZR 4047 767 SD 878 3844
 VRHZR + CU 3841 543 8722 1052 4760 HZR + CU 4258 707 6984 1563 6022
 HZR + CU 3880 560 SD 749 4017 VRHZR + CU 4313 727 SD 1204 5156
Time horizon = 85 years
 No vacc. 3092 798 No vacc. 3724 1059
 VR 2962 759 Cost-saving 717 1695 VR 3704 1072 1517 −174 −497
 VRHZR 3984 634 8170 1570 5674 VRHZR 4572 874 4375 1934 6571
 HZR 4119 676 SD 805 3859 HZR 4627 878 SD 1824 6367
 VRHZR + CU 4264 600 8266 1799 6752 VRHZR + CU 4842 834 6829 2257 7881
 HZR + CU 4402 643 SD 1020 4904 HZR + CU 4898 839 SD 2128 7632
  1. All outcomes are reported with a 3% discount rate for both benefits and costs
  2. aAccounting for cost of disease and cost of policy, in million EUR
  3. bIn thousands
  4. cSD strong dominance (a policy is dominated when the alternative is less costly and more effective), WD weak dominance (a policy is dominated when its ICER is larger than that of a policy with higher effectiveness). The ICER is measured in EUR/QALY gained
  5. dBased on the marginal productivity of the national health system (t = 15,000 EUR) and calculated with respect to no vaccination, in million EUR
  6. eBased on the consumers’ willingness to pay (t = 40,000 EUR) and calculated with respect to no vaccination, in million EUR