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Table 2 Overview of outcomes reported in the studies

From: Efficacy, effectiveness and safety of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: a systematic review

Study Incident oral infection Persisting oral infection Incident anogenital infection Persisting anogenital infection Condyloma acuminatum AIN grade 2 AIN grade 3 or carcinoma PIN grade 2 PIN grade 3 or carcinoma Severe adverse events
Anogenital Anal Anogenital Anal Genital Anal
Randomized trials
 Giuliano et al. 2011 [32]    x   x   x     xa xa x
 Palefsky et al. 2011 [33]     x   x   x x x    xb
 Coskuner et al. 2014 [31]        x       
 NCT01461096 [26]   x           
Non-randomized studies
 Swedish et al. 2012 [25]          xc xc    
 Swedish and Goldstone 2014 [34]         x     
 Kahn et al. 2015 [24] x            
  1. aPIN 2 and PIN 3 analysed together
  2. bSubgroup of Giuliano et al. [32]; therefore, all severe adverse events already reported there
  3. cdefined as “high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia”, comprising AIN 2 and AIN 3 (Goldstone, personal communication). Applying a conservative approach, results are reported here as AIN 2