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Table 6 Efficacy or effectiveness of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: infections in participants who were seronegative and PCR-negative at enrolment

From: Efficacy, effectiveness and safety of vaccination against human papillomavirus in males: a systematic review

Study Design No. of events/no. of participants Unadjusted estimate (95% CI) Confounder-adjusted estimate (95% CI) VE (95% CI)
Vaccine Control
Incident anogenital infection
HPV 16
  Giuliano et al. (2011) [32]a RCT 62/2337.7 pyrs 103/2287.8 pyrs NR NA 41.1% (18.5–57.7%)
HPV 18
  Giuliano et al. (2011) [32]a RCT 25/2441.3 pyrs 66/2440.6 pyrs NR NA 62.1% (39.2–77.1%)
Persisting anogenital infection
HPV 16
  Giuliano et al. (2011) [32]a RCT 9/2382.4 pyrs 41/2312.9 pyrs NR NA 78.7% (55.5–90.9%)
HPV 18
  Giuliano et al. (2011) [32]a RCT 1/2461.9 pyrs 25/2453.5 pyrs NR NA 96% (75.6–99.9%)
Incident anal infection
HPV 16
  Palefsky et al. (2011) [33]a RCT 6/326 pyrs 25/322.8 pyrs NR NA 76.2% (40.7–92%)
HPV 18
  Palefsky et al. (2011) [33]a RCT 0/346.3 pyrs 16/375.1 pyrs NR NA 100% (71.9–100%)
Persisting anal infection
HPV 16
  Palefsky et al. (2011) [33]a RCT 1/331.5 pyrs 16/329.9 pyrs NR NA 93.8% (60.0–99.9%)
 HPV 18
  Palefsky et al. (2011) [33]a RCT 0/346.3 pyrs 10/376.2 pyrs NR NA 100% (51.5–100%)
  1. NA not applicable, NR not reported, pyrs person-years, VE vaccine efficacy or effectiveness
  2. aVE as reported in the primary study