Skip to main content

Table 2 Details of evidence grading for meta-analyses investigating associations of depression and mortality

From: The association of depression and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Author, year Population Mortality type Sample size MDD/Deaths k Largest study ES (95% CI)a Random effects summary RRb (95% CI) Random effects P valuec 95% prediction interval I2 (%) Excess significance O/Ed Excess significance P- value
Associations supported by highly suggestive evidence
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Satin, 2009 [62]
Cancer All-cause 4034/4817 23 1.37 (1.26–1.50) 1.55 (1.32–1.81) < 10−6 0.80–2.50 69.6 11/4.53 < 0.001
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Sorensen, 2005 [64]
Meijer, 2013 [67]
van Melle, 2004 [58]
Post-AMI All-cause 4183/2358 20 1.48 (1.12–1.96) 2.09 (1.66–2.63) < 10−6 0.89–3.54 66.6 12/11.0 0.64
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Fan, 2014 [28]
Gathright 2017 [54]
Sokoreli, 2016 [63]
HF All-cause 3418/4345 22 1.33 (1.19–1.42) 1.46 (1.30–1.65) < 10−6 0.89–1.92 81.0 14/6.5 < 0.001
Baxter, 2011 [50]
Cuijpers, 2002 [19]
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Walker, 2015 [16]
Mixed-samplee All-cause 87,633/242577 111 1.77 (1.41–2.17) 1.48 (1.39–1.58) < 10−6 0.84–2.23 89.3 55/17.8 0.00
Associations supported by suggestive evidence
Barth, 2004 [26]
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Leung, 2012 [56]
Meijer, 2013 [67]
CHD All-cause 2284/1533 10 1.21 (1.04–1.42) 1.57 (1.27–1.94) < 10−4 1.16–1.47 62.6 5/1.18 < 0.001
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Hofmann, 2013 [55]
Park, 2013 [60]
DM All-cause 4373/7452 12 1.06 (0.96–1.18) 1.60 (1.30–1.80) < 10−6 0.90–3.21 83.6 8/5.72 0.18
Associations supported by weak evidence
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Stenman, 2016 [65]
CABG All-cause 503/347 4 2.40 (1.40–4.00) 1.93 (1.43–2.60) < 10−4 1.09–3.18 0 2/2.32 0.74
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Meijer, 2013 [67]
ACS All-cause 324/163 3 2.80 (1.40–5.07) 1.82 (1.02–3.26) 0.04 0.06–48.2 86.4 2/0.54 0.02
Bartoli, 2013 [20]
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Pan, 2011 [59]
Stroke All-cause 3103/414 7 1.13 (1.06–1.21) 1.46 (1.15–1.85) 0.002 0.80–2.13 62.1 4/0.04 0.00
Pan, 2011 [59] Stroke Fatal Stroke 1600/377 4 1.66 (1.16–2.39) 1.58 (1.00–2.50) 0.049 0.21–8.07 46.7 2/0.02 0.00
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Dew, 2015 [52]
Post-transplant patientsf All-cause 405/433 6 1.66 (1.12–2.47) 1.64 (1.37–1.95) < 10−2 0.71–2.65 36.5 4/0.86 < 10− 3
Cuijpers, 2014 [51] HIV All-cause 1977/1580 4 1.60 (1.32–1.92) 1.30 (1.05–1.61) 0.017 0.61–2.70 55.1 1/1.79 0.42
Meijer, 2011 [57] AMI Cardiovascular Mortality 995/114 5 5.51 (0.61–49.18) 2.98 (1.65–5.38) < 10−3 0.26–15.80 42.3 3/2.37 0.57
Cuijpers, 2014 [51]
Palmer, 2013 [27]
CKD All-cause 922/930 12 0.98 (0.72–1.34) 1.66 (1.20–2.30) < 10−2 0.84–1.40 44.4 4/0.17 0.00
Cuijpers, 2014 [51] COPD All-cause 338/261 5 1.93 (1.04–3.58) 2.34 (1.69–3.24) < 10−6 1.23–3.63 0.00 4/3.01 0.25
van Dooren, 2013 [53] DM Cardiovascular 1255/536 4 1.25 (0.83–1.86) 1.48 (1.08–2.03) 0.014 0.61–3.00 52.5 2/0.38 < 10−2
Correll, 2017 [66] Mixed samplesg Cardiovascular mortality 175,726/14495 4 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 1.56 (1.08–2.24) 0.018 0.34–6.82 87.8 3/1.00 0.02
  1. ACS acute coronary syndrome, AMI acute myocardial infarction, CA cancer, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CHD coronary heart disease, CI confidence interval, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, DM diabetes mellitus, E expected, ES effect size, HF heart failure, MDD major depressive disorder, O observed, RR risk ratio
  2. aRelative risk and 95% confidence interval of largest study (smallest standard error) in each meta-analysis
  3. bRandom effects refer to summary effect size (95% confidence interval) using the random effects model
  4. cP value of summary random effects estimate
  5. dExpected number of statistically significant studies using the point estimate of the largest study (smallest standard error) as the plausible effect size
  6. eKidney, liver, heart, and lung transplantation
  7. fIncludes community samples, inpatients, outpatients, and primary care samples
  8. gIncludes community, outpatient, and inpatient samples