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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of patients with an incident diagnosis of NAFLD in four European primary-care databases

From: Real-world data reveal a diagnostic gap in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Characteristics HSD (N = 24,027) IPCI (N = 18,865) SIDIAP (N = 77,107) THIN (N = 23,385) Test of difference p value
% / Mean (SD) / median (IQR) % / Mean (SD) / median (IQR) % / Mean (SD) / median (IQR) % / Mean (SD) / median (IQR)  
Age in years 56.2 (14.3) 56.8 (13.9) 56.0 (13.4) 53.7 (13.4) <0.0001
Gender (males) 57.3% 49.3% 52.7% 51.5% <0.0001
Body mass index in kg/m2 29.7 (5.0) 30.8 (5.4) 31.3 (5.1) 32.4 (5.9) <0.0001
History of diabetes or impaired fasting glucose 18.0% 20.5% 20.0% 21.0% <0.0001
History of hypertension 47.5% 36.0% 42.8% 40.5% <0.0001
Aspartate transaminase (IU/L) 24 (19–33) 29 (22–40) 29 (22–40) 32 (24–47) <0.0001
Alanine transaminase (IU/L) 30 (20–48) 37 (25–56) 34 (22–53) 45 (28–68) <0.0001
Platelet counts (109/L) 238 (65) 262 (68.6) 244 (61.2) 250 (75.3) <0.0001
AST to ALT ratio 0.87 (0.34) 0.80 (0.36) 0.83 (0.38) 0.82 (0.38) <0.0001
FIB-4 score      <0.0001
 Low risk (FIB-4 < 1.30) 64.3% 70.4% 65.5% 65.0%  
 Indeterminate risk (FIB-4: 1.30–2.67) 31.4% 26.7% 30.3% 25.0%  
 High risk (FIB-4 > 2.67) 4.3% 2.9% 4.2% 10.0%  
  1. Arithmetic means were reported for age, BMI, platelet counts and AST to ALT ratio; median (IQR) were reported for albumin, AST and ALT. P values are from ANOVA test of difference between means for continuous variables (for log-transformed AST and ALT), and Chi-2 test of difference for categorical variables. Number of patients with data available on each of these variables is provided in Additional file 1: Table S3
  2. ALT alanine transaminase, ANOVA analysis of variance, AST aspartate transaminase, BMI body mass index, HSD Health Search Database, IPCI Integrated Primary Care Information, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, SIDIAP Information System for Research in Primary Care, THIN The Health Improvement Network