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Table 2 Modelling spending rate (in 2014), clustered by Clinical Commissioning Group, sex/age variables

From: Breaking bread: examining the impact of policy changes in access to state-funded provisions of gluten-free foods in England

Model predictors Unadjusted point estimate (95% confidence interval) Adjusteda point estimate (95% confidence interval)
Sex
 Change per % increase in female patients 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
Age
 Change per % increase in patients ≤ 18 years 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 1.02 (1.02–1.03)
 Change per % increase in patients ≥ 75 years 1.06 (1.05–1.07) 1.07 (1.06–1.07)
Level of rurality
 Baseline: Rural 1 1
 Towns and Cities 0.85 (0.81–0.90) 0.93 (0.89–0.98)
 Urban Conurbation 0.73 (0.67–0.80) 0.85 (0.78–0.93)
Level of deprivation
 Baseline: 1 – Least Deprived 1 1
 2 0.88 (0.83–0.92) 0.93 (0.88–0.98)
 3 0.80 (0.76–0.85) 0.88 (0.83–0.93)
 4 0.71 (0.67–0.75) 0.80 (0.75–0.85)
 5 – Most Deprived 0.67 (0.63–0.71) 0.77 (0.72–0.83)
  1. aAdjusted for all other predictors in the model