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Table 2 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) mean total and subscale scores for young refugees and comparison with Australian norms

From: Adjustment of refugee children and adolescents in Australia: outcomes from wave three of the Building a New Life in Australia study

  Boys Girls
  Parent SDQ Parent SDQ
BNLA (5–10) AUS (7 to 10)   BNLA (5–10) AUS (7 to 10)  
Aged 5–10 n = 109 n = 160 t test p n = 97 n = 197 t test p
 Total difficulties 10.1 (0.59) 9.9 (0.51) 0.733 8.7 (0.56) 7.7 (0.41) 0.074
 Emotional symptoms 2.4 (0.22) 2.3 (0.17) 0.794 2.0 (0.23) 2.3 (0.14) 0.264
 Conduct problems 1.7 (0.16) 1.8 (0.13) 0.439 1.3 (0.17) 1.3 (0.11) 0.908
 Hyperactivity/inattention 3.6 (0.23) 4.1 (0.21) 0.037* 3.1 (0.21) 2.6 (0.16) 0.023*
 Peer problems 2.4 (0.17) 1.8 (0.16) 0.000*** 2.3 (0.16) 1.5 (0.14) 0.000***
 Prosocial behaviour 7.7 (0.23) 8.0 (0.14) 0.146 8.3 (0.22) 8.7 (0.11) 0.097
  Self SDQ Self SDQ
BNLA (11–13) AUS (11–13)   BNLA (11–13) AUS (11–13)  
Aged 11 to 13 n = 86 n = 148 t test p n = 81 n = 144 t test p
 Total difficulties 8.6 (0.57) 8.8 (0.45) 0.779 8.8 (0.65) 8.0 (0.51) 0.198
 Emotional symptoms 2.3 (0.21) 2.0 (0.16) 0.147 3.0 (0.26) 2.6 (0.18) 0.155
 Conduct problems 1.4 (0.15) 2.0 (0.15) 0.000*** 1.4 (0.22) 1.3 (0.12) 0.754
 Hyperactivity/inattention 2.6 (0.21) 3.2 (0.19) 0.008* 2.3 (0.20) 2.6 (0.18) 0.179
 Peer problems 2.4 (0.20) 1.7 (0.13) 0.001*** 2.2 (0.19) 1.4 (0.13) 0.000***
 Prosocial behaviour 8.1 (0.18) 7.8 (0.16) 0.115 8.3 (0.17) 8.6 (0.12) 0.058
  BNLA (14–17) AUS (14–17)   BNLA (14–17) AUS (14–17)  
Aged 14 to 17 n = 127 n = 115 t test p n = 112 n = 144 t test p
 Total difficulties 8.1 (0.41) 10.1 (0.56) 0.000*** 10.3 (0.57) 9.1 (0.40) 0.036*
 Emotional symptoms 2.1 (0.17) 2.1 (0.19) 0.788 3.2 (0.24) 2.9 (0.16) 0.152
 Conduct problems 1.3 (0.13) 2.4 (0.18) 0.000*** 1.8 (0.14) 1.7 (0.12) 0.559
 Hyperactivity/inattention 2.6 (0.14) 4.0 (0.22) 0.000*** 2.6 (0.16) 3.1 (0.18) 0.003*
 Peer problems 2.2 (0.13) 1.6 (0.15) 0.000*** 2.6 (0.17) 1.4 (0.12) 0.000***
 Prosocial behaviour 7.9 (0.18) 7.3 (0.17) 0.001*** 8.2 (0.16) 8.4 (0.13) 0.294
  1. Note. Values in parentheses are standard errors due to clustering analysis. Australian normative SDs were converted to SE. SDQ Total difficulties range: 0 to 40. The five SDQ subscales range: 0 to 10
  2. BNLA Building a New Life in Australia young refugee sample, AUS Australian norms
  3. *p ≤ 0.05, ***p ≤ 0.001